Ionisierende Strahlung

  • Karl König
Part of the Gesundheitssystemforschung book series (GESUNDHEITSSYST)

Zusammenfassung

Die Beeinträchtigung der menschlichen Gesundheit durch ionisierende Strahlung ist seit über 80 Jahren bekannt. Im Jahre 1902 berichtete Frieben über die Induktion eines Hautkrebses als Folge langandauernder Einwirkung von Röntgenstrahlen. Unzählige Untersuchungen in der Folgezeit führten zu dem Ergebnis, daß jede Exposition mit ionisierender Strahlung das Risiko eines gesundheitlichen Schadens in sich birgt; das heißt, daß bis jetzt kein Schwellenwert zu beobachten war. Trotzdem ist die Existenz eines Schwellenwertes und die Beziehung zwischen Gesundheitsschaden und Exposition nach wie vor umstritten. Dies gilt insbesondere für den bisher am meisten untersuchten Gesundheitsschaden, die Induktion maligner Neoplasmen. Diese treten zumeist erst Jahre bis Jahrzehnte nach der Exposition auf, und die Erhöhung der Inzidenz ist bei manchen Krebsarten nach 40 Jahren noch zu beobachten. Die Schwierigkeiten für die Epidemiologie liegen darin, über diese Zeiträume den Zusammenhang von Exposition und Gesundheitseffekt zu sichern. Dazu kommt, daß keine strahlenspezifische Malignome bekannt sind. Der Nachweis des Strahleneffektes läßt sich damit nur mit Hilfe statistischer Methoden über eine Erhöhung der Malignominzidenz in einer Bevölkerung führen. Dabei sind je nach Malignomtyp eine Vielzahl weiterer Faktoren zu berücksichtigen: Alter bei Exposition, Geschlecht der exponierten Person, Höhe und Zeitdauer der Exposition, klinische Erfolge bei der Behandlung einer Malignomart im Laufe-der Zeit, zusätzliche Risikofaktoren wie Rauchen oder Exposition mit anderen Noxen am Arbeitsplatz, medizinische und unterschiedlich hohe natürliche Expositionen.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

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  • Karl König

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