Advertisement

Self-Disclosure and Help-Seeking as Determinants of Vulnerability: Case Studies of Unemployed from Social-Psychiatric Services and Recommendations for Health and Social Policy

  • T. Kieselbach
Part of the Health Systems Research book series (HEALTH)

Abstract

The present chapter examines the connection between mass unemployment ensuing from an economic crisis and the growing psychosocial need for help for those population groups directly and indirectly affected. In particular those psychological mechanisms and their preconditions which motivate, facilitate, hinder, or prevent the utilization of professional help will be considered. I limit myself here to two aspects, self-disclosure and help-seeking, among many in the process of attempting to cope with unemployment.

Keywords

Trade Union Unemployed People Psychosocial Service Psychosocial Counselling Mass Unemployment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahr PR, Gorodezky MJ, Cho DW (1981) Measuring the relationship of public psychiatric admissions to rising unemployment. Hosp Community Psychiatry 32: 398–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashby (1985) The long-term unemployed. Action for a forgotten million. National Council for Voluntary Organisations (NCVO) LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Banziger G, Smith RK, Foos D (1982) Economic indicators of mental health service utilization in rural Appalachia. Am J Community Psychol 10: 669–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barling P, Handal P (1980) Incidence of utilization of public mental health facilities as a function of short term economic decline. Am J Community Psychol 8: 31–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brenner MH (1973) Mental illness and the economy. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  6. Brinkmann C (1976) Finanzielle und psycho-soziale Belastungen während der Arbeitslosigkeit. Mitteilungen aus der Arbeitsmarkt-und Berufsforschung 9: 397–413Google Scholar
  7. Buchholz W, Gmür W, Höfer R, Straus F (1984) Lebenswelt und Familienwirklichkeit. Studien zur Praxis der Familienberatung. Campus, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  8. Buss TF, Redburn FS Waldron J (1983) Mass unemployment. Plant closings and community mental health. Sage, Beverly HillsGoogle Scholar
  9. Catalano R, Dooley D (1977) Economic predictors of depressed mood and stressful life events in a metropolitan community. J Health Soc Behav 18: 292–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Catalano R, Dooley D (1979) The economy as a stressor: a sectoral analysis. Rev Soc Economy 37: 175–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Catalano R, Dooley D (1980) Economic change in primary prevention. In: Price RH, Ketterer RF, Bader BC (eds) Prvention in community mental health: research, policy and practice. Sage, Beverly Hills, pp 21–40Google Scholar
  12. Catalano R, Dooley D, Jackson R (1981) Economic predictors of admissions to mental health facilities in a nonmetropolitan community. J Health Soc Behav 24: 284–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cordes C (1983) Detroit. A ravaged city copes with the human toll. APA Monitor 14(1): 3, 17Google Scholar
  14. Council of Europe (1985) Study on “The psychological and social consequences of unemployment-especially long-term and repeated unemployment-on the individual and the family: measures taken or contemplated in the social field.” Report by the Study Group of the Steering Committee for Social Affairs (CDSO), Strasbourg (CDSO (85) 28 )Google Scholar
  15. Cozby PC (1973) Self-disclosure. A literature review. Psychol Bull 79: 73–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crawford R (1977) You are dangerous to your health: the ideology and politics of victim blaming. Int J Health Sery 7: 663–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DePaulo B, Nadler MA, Fisher JD (eds) (1983) New directions in helping, vol 2: Help-Seeking. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Dilling H, Weyerer S (1984) Psychische Erkrankungen in der Bevölkerung. Enke, Stuttgart Dohrenwend BS (1978) Social stress and community. Am J Community Psychol 6: 1–14Google Scholar
  19. Dohrenwend BP, Dohrenwend BS, Gould MS, Link B, Neugebauer R, Wunsch-Hitzig R (1980) Mental illness in the United States. Praeger, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Dooley D, Catalano R (1977) Money and mental disorder: toward behavioral cost accounting for primary prevention. Am J Community Psych 5: 217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dooley D, Catalano R (1980) Economic change as a cause of behavioral disorder. Psychol Bull 87: 450–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dooley D, Catalano R (1985a) Does economic change increase mental disorder? In: Westcott G, Svensson PG, Zöllner HFK (eds) Health policy implications of unemployment. World Health Organization, Copenhagen, pp 57–86Google Scholar
  23. Dooley, D, Catalano R (1985b) Why the economy predicts help-seeking: a test of competing explanations: In: Westcott G, Svensson PG, Zöllner HFK (eds) Health policy implications of unemployment. World Health Organization, Copenhagen, pp 205–230Google Scholar
  24. Dooley D, Catalano R, Jackson R, Brownell A (1981) Economic, life, and symptom changes in a nonmetropolitan community. J Health Soc Behav 22: 144–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ferman L, Gordus L (eds) (1979) Mental health and the economy. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, Kalamazoo, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  26. Figueira-McDonough J (1978) Mental health among unemployed Detroiters. Soc Sery Rev 52: 383–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Finlay-Jones R, Eckhardt B (1982) A survey of psychiatric disorder among the young unemployed of Canberra (final report). Report submitted to the Research and Development Grants Advisory Committee, Australian Department of HealthGoogle Scholar
  28. Fisher JD, Nadler A, Whitcher-Alagna S (1982) Recipients’ reactions to aid. Psychol Bull 91: 27–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Frank J (1981) Economic change and mental health in an uncontaminated setting. Am J Community Psych 9: 395–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Frese M, Mohr G (1978) Die psychopathologischen Folgen des Entzugs von Arbeit: der Fall der Arbeitslosigkeit. In: Frese M, Greif S, Semmer N ( 1978 ) Industrielle Psychopathologie. Huber, Bern, pp 282–320Google Scholar
  31. Frey JJ (1982) Unemployment and health in the United States. Br Med J 284: 1112–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goodstein LD, Reinecker VM (1974) Factors affecting self-disclosure: a review of the literature. In: Maher BA (ed) Progress in experimental personality research. New York, pp 49–77Google Scholar
  33. Gourash N (1978) Help-seeking: a review of the literature. Am J Community Psychol 6: 413–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gross AE, Wallston BS, Piliavin I (1979) Reactance, attribution, equity, and the help recipient. J Appl Soc Psychol 9: 297–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Häfner H, Reimann H, Immich H, Martini H (1969) Inzidenz seelischer Erkrankungen in Mannheim 1965. Soc Psychiatry 4: 126–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heinz WR, Krüger H, Rettke U, Wachtveitl E, Witzei A (1985) Hauptsache eine Lehrstelle. Jugendliche vor den Hürden des Arbeitsmarktes. Beltz, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  37. Hofbauer H, Dadzio W (1982) Die Wirksamkeit von Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Vermittlungsaussichten für Arbeitslose nach § 41 a AFG. Mitteilungen für Arbeitsmarkt-und Berufsforschung 15: 426–433Google Scholar
  38. Hollingshead AB, Redlich FC (1958) Social class and mental illness. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jacobsen K (1974) Unemployment and dismissal as disease producing factors. Ugeskr Laeger 136: 1650–1652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Janlert U (1985) Unemployment and health. In: Westcott G, Svensson PG, Zöllner HFK (eds) Health policy implications of unemployment. World Health Organization, Copenhagen, pp 7–26Google Scholar
  41. John J, Schwefel D, Zöllner H (eds) (1983) Influence of economic instability on health. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  42. Jourard SM (1964) The transparent self. Litton, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  43. Kanner AD, Coyne JC, Schaefer C, Lazarus RS (1981) Comparisons of two modes of stress measurement: daily hassles and uplifts vs major life events. J Behav Med 4: 1–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kaplan BH, Cassel JC, Gore S (1977) Social support and health. Med Care 15 (Suppl 5): 47–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kieselbach T (1984) Arbeitslosigkeit, Gesellschaftsbewußtsein und kollektive Interessenorientierung. In: Moser H, Preiser S (eds) Umweltprobleme und Arbeitslosigkeit. Gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen an die Politische Psychologie (Fortschritte der Politischen Psychologie, vol. 4 ). Beltz, Weinheim, pp 120–139Google Scholar
  46. Kieselbach T ( 1985a) The contribution of psychology to the realm of unemployment in the community: intervention and research concepts. In: Westcott G, Svensson PG, Zöllner HFK (eds) Health policy implications of unemployment. World Health Organization, Copenhagen, pp 367–382Google Scholar
  47. Kieselbach T (1985b) Arbeitslosigkeit, Selbsteröffnung und Hilfesuchverhalten. In: Keupp H, Kleiber D, Scholten B (eds) Im Schatten der Wende. Helferkrisen-Arbeitslosigkeit-Berufliche Rehabilitation. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verhaltenstherapie ( DGVT ), Tübingen, pp 122–137Google Scholar
  48. Kieselbach T (1985c) Die gesellschaftliche Verarbeitung von Massenarbeitslosigkeit: Gesundheits-und sozialpolitische Konsequenzen aus der Arbeitslosenforschung. Theorie und Praxis der sozialen Arbeit 36: 122–134Google Scholar
  49. Kieselbach T ( 1985d) Funktion und Perspektiven psychosozialer Intervention bei Arbeitslosen. In: Kieselbach T, Wacker A (eds) Individuelle und gesellschaftliche Kosten der Massenarbeitslosigkeit-Psychologische Theorie und Praxis. Beltz, Weinheim, pp 352–373Google Scholar
  50. Kieselbach T ( 1985e) Jugend-ein Risikofaktor? Gesundheits-und sozialpolitische Konsequenzen aus der Forschung zur Jugendarbeitslosigkeit. Psychosozial no 27 (Jugend ohne Arbeit). Rowohlt, Reinbek, pp 49–72Google Scholar
  51. Kieselbach T (1986) Hilfesuchen von Arbeitslosen und Folgerungen für die Konzipierung psychosozialer Interventionen. Paper presented at the Congress of clinical psychology and psychotherapy, 16–21 February 1986, Berlin (West )Google Scholar
  52. Kieselbach T (1987a) Gesellschaftliche Rezeption von Arbeitslosigkeit und Arbeitslosenforschung. Politikberatung im Bereich Gesundheits-und Sozialpolitik. In: Löset H, Skowronek H (eds) Beiträge der Psychologie zu politischen Planungs-und Entscheidungsprozessen (Fortschritte der Politischen Psychologie, vol 7 ). Psychologie-Verlags-Union, München (forthcoming)Google Scholar
  53. Kieselbach T (1987b) Youth unemployment: health consequences and recommendations for psychosocial interventions (Desempleo juvenil: effectos de salud mental y recomendaciones para las intervenciones psico-sociales con los desempleados). In: Torregrosa JR, Bergere J, Alvaro JL (eds) Youth, work and unemployment ( Juventud, trabajo y desempleo) Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid (forthcoming)Google Scholar
  54. Kieselbach T ( 1988a) A regional approach for the improvement of the psychosocial situation of the unemployed-the regional working group Unemployment and Health Bremen (FRG). In: Cullen JA, Svensson PG, Wintersberger H (eds) Unemployment, poverty and quality of working life-innovative interventions to counteract damaging health effects. European Centre for Social Welfare and Training, Vienna (forthcoming )Google Scholar
  55. Kieselbach T (1988b) Hilfesuchverhalten von Arbeitslosen im Sozialpsychiatrischen Dienst. Research report, University of Bremen (forthcoming )Google Scholar
  56. Kieselbach T, Offe H (1979) Psychologische, gesundheitliche, soziale und politische Probleme als Folge von Arbeitslosigkeit-ein kritischer Literaturüberblick. In: Kieselbach T, Offe H (eds) Arbeitslosigkeit-individuelle Verarbeitung und gesellschaftlicher Hintergrund. Steinkopff, Darmstadt, pp 7–140Google Scholar
  57. Kieselbach T, Schindler H (1984) Psychosoziale Auswirkungen der Arbeitslosigkeit und Hindernisse für eine Aktivierung Arbeitsloser. Bericht Über ein Seminar mit arbeitslosen Gewerkschaftern. Bremer Beitrüge zur Psychologie no 32, University of BremenGoogle Scholar
  58. Kieselbach T, Svensson, PG (1987) Health policy development in Europe in response to economic instability. In Dooley D, Catalano R (eds) Social costs of economic stress. Journal of Social Issues (forthcoming)Google Scholar
  59. Kieselbach T, Wacker A (1985) Individuelle und gesellschaftliche Kosten der Massenarbeitslosigkeit-Psychologische Theorie und Praxis. Beltz, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  60. Klink F, Schemer E (1986) Arbeitslos-am Ende steht der Sozialpsychiatrische Dienst? Bremer Beitrüge zur Psychologie no 58, University of BremenGoogle Scholar
  61. Kupka, P, Schemer E (1987) “Damals gab es Suppenküchen, heute gibt es Bildungsurlaub!” Bericht über Seminare “Arbeitslos, aber nicht wehrlos!” der DGB-Beratungsstelle für Arbeitslose Bremen. Paper presented at the Congress of clinical psychology and psychotherapy, 16–21 February 1986, Berlin (West). Bremer Beitrüge zur Psychologie no 68, University of BremenGoogle Scholar
  62. Leibfried S (1982) Wirklich bedürftig oder nur verelendet? Notizen zur US-amerikanischen Armutspolitik. Theorie und Praxis der sozialen Arbeit 6: 209–222Google Scholar
  63. Liem R (1981) Unemployment and mental health implications for human service policy. Policy Studies 10: 350–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Liem R (1983) Reconsidering the concept of social victim: the case of unemployment. Unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the American psychological association, August 1983, Anaheim, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  65. Liem R, Liem J (1979) Social support and stress: some general issues and their application to the problem of unemployment. In: Ferman L, Gordus J (eds) Mental health and the economy. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, Kalamazoo, Michigan, pp 347–378Google Scholar
  66. Liem R, Rayman P (1982) Health and social costs of unemployment-research and policy considerations. Am Psychol 37: 1116–1123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. MacLean ME (1977) Learning theory and chronic welfare dependency: a hypothesis of etiological and contingency relationships. J Behav Therapy Exp Psychiatry 8: 255–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mawson T (1986) Ausbildung von Langzeitarbeitslosen. Soziales Europa, May 1986, pp 86–88Google Scholar
  69. Mechanic D (1969) Mental health and social policy. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  70. Mechanic D (ed) (1982) Symptoms, illness behavior, and help-seeking. Watson Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Morgan S (1986) Seminar über Langzeitarbeitslosigkeit. Soziales Europa, May 1986, pp 89–91Google Scholar
  72. Moses J (1981) Arbeitslosigkeit-ein Problem der Volksgesundheit. BerlinGoogle Scholar
  73. Myers JK, Roberts BH (1959) Family and class dynamics in mental illness. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. Popay J (1985) Responding to unemployment at a local level. In: Westcott G, Svensson PG, Zöllner HFK (eds) Health policy implications of unemployment. World Health Organization, Copenhagen, pp 383–399Google Scholar
  75. Rappaport J (1981) In praise of paradox: a social policy of empowerment over prevention. Am J Community Psychol 9: 1–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rayman P (1980) The social costs of urban economic dislocation: job loss in Hartford’s Aircraft Industry. Unpublished paper, Brandeis UniversityGoogle Scholar
  77. Rayman P (1982) The world of not-working: an evaluation of urban social service response to unemployment. J Health Hum Resources Administration 4: 319–333Google Scholar
  78. Regionale Arbeitsgemeinschaft “Arbeitslosigkeit und Gesundheit” Bremen (1986) Gesundheitsund sozialpolitische Forderungen zur Verbesserung der psychosozialen Lage Arbeitsloser in der Region. University of Bremen, Research Unit “Work, Unemployment and Personality Development”. Bremer Beitrüge zur Psychologie no 55, University of BremenGoogle Scholar
  79. Riegle DW (1982) Psychological and social effects of unemployment. Am Psychol 37: 1113–1115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Riessman F, Scribner S (1965) The utilization of mental health services by workers and low-income groups: causes and cures. Am J Psychiatry 121: 798–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Rostila I (1985) Arbeitslosigkeit als Lebenslage im Lebensverlauf. In: Kieselbach T, Wacker A (eds) Individuelle und gesellschaftliche Kosten der Massenarbeitslosigkeit-Psychologische Theorie und Praxis. Beltz, Weinheim, pp 84–90Google Scholar
  82. Ryan W (1971) Blaming the victim. Pantheon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  83. Salovaara H (1984) Methods of activation and support of the unemployed. J Community Health Care 62: 318–320Google Scholar
  84. Sclar E, Hoffman F (1978) Planning mental health service for a declining economy. Research final report, National Center for Health Services, Report Grant 3 Rol HS 02266–01Google Scholar
  85. Seabrook J (1981) Unemployment now and in the 1930’s. In: Crick B (ed) Unemployment. Methuen, London, pp 7–15Google Scholar
  86. Seabrook J (1982) Unemployment. Quartet, LondonGoogle Scholar
  87. Senior B, Cordon R (1982) How far can resource exchange networks be alternatives to employment and unemployment? Unpublished paper presented at the British Psychological Society’s occupational psychology section conference, January 1982Google Scholar
  88. Sonnen FR (1983) Beratung in Not. Die Reichen werden reicher-die Armen immer ärmer-auch bei uns? Unsere Jugend 35: 335–341Google Scholar
  89. Spruit IP (1983) To be employed, to be unemployed and health in families in Leiden. In: Spruit IP (ed) Unemployment, employment and health. University of Leiden Press, Leiden, pp 137–177Google Scholar
  90. Srole L, Langner TS, Michael ST, Opler MD, Rennie TA (1962) Mental health in metropolis: the Midtown Manhattan study, vol 1. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  91. Thomann KD (1978) Die gesundheitlichen Auswirkungen der Arbeitslosigkeit. In: Wacker A (ed) Vom Schock zum Fatalismus? Soziale und psychische Auswirkungen der Arbeitslosigkeit. Campus, Frankfurt, pp 194–240Google Scholar
  92. Thomann KD (1983) The effects of unemployment on health and public awareness of this in the Federal Republic of Germany. In: John J, Schwefel D, Zöllner H (eds) Influence of economic instability on health. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 480–491Google Scholar
  93. Tessler RC, Schwartz SH (1972) Help-seeking, self-esteem, and achievement motivation: an attributional analysis. J Personality Soc Psychol 21: 318–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tiffany DW, Cowan JR, Tiffany PM (1970) The unemployed. A social-psychological portrait. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  95. Unemployment and health study group (1984) (ed) Unemployment, health and social policy. Report on a seminar, Nov. 1983. Nuffield Centre for Health Services Studies, LeedsGoogle Scholar
  96. Wacker A (ed) (1978) Vom Schock zum Fatalismus? Soziale und psychische Auswirkungen der Arbeitslosigkeit. Campus, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  97. Wacker A (1983) Differentielle Verarbeitungsformen von Arbeitslosigkeit. Probleme des Klassenkampfs 13 (53): 77–88Google Scholar
  98. Warr PB (1984a) Job loss, unemployment and psychological well-being. In: Allen VL, van de Vliert E (eds) Role transitions. Plenum, New York, pp 263–285Google Scholar
  99. Warr PB (1984b) Economic recession and mental health: a review of research. J Community Health Care 62: 298–308Google Scholar
  100. Warr PB, Jackson P, Banks M (1985) The experience of unemployment among black and white urban teenagers. Br J Psychol 76: 75–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Weiland R (1933) Die Kinder der Arbeitslosen. Schriftenreihe des Deutschen Archivs für Jugendwohlfahrt no 11, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  102. Weiss CH (1969) Validity of welfare mothers’ responses. Public Opinion Q 32: 622–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Westcott G, Svensson PG, Zöllner HFK (eds) (1985) Health policy implications of unemployment. World Health Organization, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  104. Windolf P (1982) Arbeitslosigkeit heute, Grauzonenbeschäftigung und informeller Sektor. Die neue Arbeitslosigkeit und die Grenzen der Sozialpolitik. Soziale Welt 33: 365–399Google Scholar
  105. Winfield I (1981) Psychology and centres for the unemployed-challenge or chimera? Bull Br Psychol Soc 34: 353–355Google Scholar
  106. Wittmann W (1980) Die neuen Ausbeuter. Seewald, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  107. Wulff E (1985) Materielles Elend, soziale Not und seelisches Leid. In: Keupp H, Kleiber D, Scholten B (eds) Im Schatten der Wende. Helferkrisen-Arbeitslosigkeit-Berufliche Rehabilitation. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verhaltenstherapie (DGVT), Tübingen, pp 72–81Google Scholar
  108. Zola J (1964) Illness behavior of the working class. In: Shostak A, Gomberg W (eds) Blue-collar world: studies of the American worker. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp 351–361Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Kieselbach

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations