Septic Shock pp 248-259 | Cite as

Immunotherapy of Life-threatening Gram-negative Infections: Facts and Controversies

  • J. D. Baumgartner
  • M. P. Glauser
Part of the Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (UICM, volume 4)


Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are the major cause of infection and death in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units [1–4]. In the United States alone, it has been estimated that 70,000 to 300,000 episodes of gram-negative septicemia occur each year [5], with an unknown number, perhaps even higher, of potentially lethal infections with negative blood cultures. Many of the toxic manifestations induced by gram-negative bacterial infections are believed to be mediated by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) component of the outer membrane of these bacteria. Antibiotics are unable to prevent the toxic effects of LPS, and may even promote the release of LPS from bacteria [6]. Since mortality of gram-negative infections remain high despite the most modern managements and antibiotics, alternative approaches are clearly needed.


High Risk Surgical Patient Indirect Hemagglutination Rough Mutant Cell Wall Antigen Standard IVIG 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Baumgartner
  • M. P. Glauser

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