Dust environment of comet P/Halley: a review

  • Z. Sekanina
Conference paper


Recent major advances in the understanding of comet Halley’s dust environment are highlighted and a wide range of related problems reviewed. Addressed individually are selected spacecraft results, namely the dust composition, the detection of subfemtogram grains, and the particle-mass distribution; jets, the dust-emission pattern, and the existence of discrete sources on the nucleus surface; CN and C2 jets; large-scale phenomena, including an antitail, streamers, and a sunward spike; infrared observations, highlighted by recent detections of the 3.4 µm emission feature, first applications of array detectors, and rare far-infrared data; the chemical modification of low-temperature ices by UV and cosmic-ray irradiation processes, their laboratory simulations, and applications to the evolution of comets; the “interstellar-connection” models of comet origin; and the formation of a mantle made of refractory organic material on the nucleus surface.

Key words

comet Halley dust emission chemical composition jet evolution UV and cosmic-ray irradiation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. A’Hearn, M.F., Hoban, S., Birch, P. V., Bowers, C., Martin, R., Klinglesmith, D. A.: 1986a, Nature 324, 649ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. A’Hearn, M.F., Hoban, S., Birch, P. V., Bowers, C., Martin, R., Klinglesmith, D. A.: 1986 b, 20th ESLAB Symp., ESA SP-250, Vol. I, p. 483Google Scholar
  3. Bessel, F.W.: 1836, Astron. Nachr. 13, 185ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bobrovnikoff, N. T.: 1931, Publ. Lick Obs. 17, 307Google Scholar
  5. Brin, G.D.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 237, 265ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brin, G.D., Mendis, D.A.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 229, 402ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, W.L., Lanzerotti, L.J., Johnson, R.E.: 1982, Science 218, 525ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brownlee, D. E.: 1978, in Cosmic Dust, ed. J. A. M. McDonnell, Wiley, Chichester, England, p. 295Google Scholar
  9. Brownlee, D.E.: 1985, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 13, 147ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calcagno, L., Foti, G., Torrisi, L., Strazzulla, G.: 1985, Icarus 63, 31ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark, B.C., Mason, L. W., Kissel, J.: 1986, 20th ESLAB Symp., ESA SP-250, Vol. III, p. 353Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, J.F.: 1983, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. d’Hendecourt, L. B., Allamandola, L.J., Grim, R.J.A., Greenberg, J.M.: 1986, Astron. Astrophys.158,119Google Scholar
  14. Divine, N., Fechtig, H., Gombosi, T.I., Hanner, M.S., Keller, H.U., Larson, S.M., Mendis, D. A., Newburn, R.L., Reinhard, R., Sekanina, Z., Yeomans, D.K.: 1986, Space Sci. Rev. 43, 1ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Donn, B.: 1976, NASA SP-393, p. 611Google Scholar
  16. Draganic, I. G., Draganic, Z.D., Vujosevic, S.: 1984, Icarus 60, 464ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Edenhofer, P., Bird, M. K., Brenkle, J. P., Buschert, H., Esposito, P. B., Porsche, H., Volland, H.: 1986a, Nature 321, 355ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edenhofer, P., Buschert, H., Bird, M.K., Volland, H., Porsche, H., Brenkle, J. P., Kursinsky, E.R., Mottinger, N.A., Stelzried, C. T.: 1986b, 20th ESLAB Symp., ESA SP-250, Vol. II, p. 215Google Scholar
  19. Fanale, F. P., Salvail, J.R.: 1984, Icarus 60, 476ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fechtig, H., Mukai, T.: 1985, in Ices in the Solar System, eds. J. Klinger, D. Benest, A. Dollfus, R. Smoluchowski, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 251Google Scholar
  21. Foti, G., Calcagno, L., Sheng, K.L., Strazzulla, G.: 1984, Nature 310, 126ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Greenberg, J. M.: 1982, in Comets, ed. L. L. Wilkening, University of Arizona, Tucson, p. 131Google Scholar
  23. Greenberg, J.M.: 1983, in Cometary Exploration II, ed. T.I. Gombosi, Hung. Acad. Sci., Budapest, p. 23Google Scholar
  24. Greenberg, J.M.: 1986a, ESA SP-249, p. 47Google Scholar
  25. Greenberg, J.M.: 1986b, in Galaxy and the Solar System, ed. R. Smoluchowski, University of Arizona, Tucson, p. 103Google Scholar
  26. Greenberg, J. M.: 1986 c, in Asteroids, Comets, Meteors II, eds. C.-I. Lagerkvist, B. A. Lindblad, H. Lundstedt, H. Rickman, Uppsala University, Uppsala, p. 221Google Scholar
  27. Greenberg, J.M., Gustafson, B.A.S.: 1981, Astron. Astrophys. 93, 35ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Hanner, M.S.: 1986, Adv. Space. Res. 5, No. 12, p. 325ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harvey, P. M., Campins, H., Ellis, H.B., Jr., Joy, M., Lester, D.F.: 1986, Adv. Space Res. 5, No. 12, p. 335ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Herschel, J. F. W.: 1847, Results of Astronomical Observations at the Cape of Good Hope, Smith, Elder, London, p. 393Google Scholar
  31. Hevelius, J.: 1682, Acta erudit.,Dec., p. 389Google Scholar
  32. Johnson, R.E.: 1985, in Ices in the Solar System, eds. J. Klinger, D. Benest, A. Dollfus, R. Smoluchowski, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 337Google Scholar
  33. Johnson, R. E., Cooper, J. F., Lanzerotti, L.J.: 1986, 20th ESLAB Symp., ESA SP-250, Vol. II, p. 269Google Scholar
  34. Johnson, R.E., Lanzerotti, L.J.: 1986, Icarus 66, 619ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson, R.E., Lanzerotti, L.J., Brown, W.L.,: 1982, Nucl. Instr. Meth. 198, 147ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnson, R.E., Lanzerotti, L.J., Brown, W.L., Augustyniak, W.M., Mussil, C.: 1983, Astron. Astrophys. 123, 343ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Julian, W.H.: 1987, Nature 326, 57ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keller, H. U., Arpigny, C., Barbieri, C., Bonnet, R. M., Casez, S., Coradini, M., Cosmovici, C. B., Delamare, W. A., Huebner, W.F., Hughes, D.W., Jamar, C., Malaise, D., Reitsema, H.J., Schmidt, H.U., Schmidt, W.K.H., Seige, P., Whipple, F. L., Wilhelm, K.: 1986, Nature 321, 320ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kissel, J., Brownlee, D. E., Buchler, K., Clark, B.C., Fechtig, H., Grun, E., Hornung, K., Igenbergs, E.B., Jessberger, E.K., Krueger, F.R., Kuczera, H., McDonnell, J. A. M., Morfill, G.M., Rahe, J., Schwehm, G.H., Sekanina, Z., Utterback, N.G., Volk, H.J., Zook, H. A.: 1986a, Nature 321, 336ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kissel, J., Sagdeev, R.Z., Bertaux, J.L., Angarov, V.N., Audouze, J., Blamont, J.E., Buchler, K., Evlanov, E. N., Fechtig, H., Fomenkova, M.N., von Hoerner, H., Inogamov, N. A., Khromov, V.N., Knabe, W., Krueger, F.R., Langevin, Y., Leonas, V.B., Levasseur-Regourd, A.C., Managadze, G.G., Podkolzin, S. N., Shapiro, V.D., Tabaldyev, S. R., Zubkov, B. V.: 1986b, Nature 321, 280ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lamy, P.: 1986, Adv. Space Res. 5, No. 12, p. 317ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lanzerotti, L. J., Brown, W. L., Johnson, R. E.: 1985, in Ices in the Solar System, eds. J. Klinger, D. Benest, A. Dollfus, R. Smoluchowski, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 317Google Scholar
  43. Larson, S.M., Sekanina, Z.: 1984, Astron. J. 89, 571, 600Google Scholar
  44. Larson, S.M., Sekanina, Z.: 1985, Astron. J. 90, 823, 917Google Scholar
  45. Larson, S.M., Sekanina Z., Levy, D., Tapia, S., Senay, M.: 1986, 20th ESLAB Symp., ESA SP-250, Vol. II, p. 145Google Scholar
  46. Levasseur-Regourd, A.C., Bertraux, J.L., Dumont, R., Festou, M., Giese, R. H., Giovane, F., Lamy, P., Le Blanc, J.M., Llebaria, A., Weinberg, J.L.: 1986, Nature 321, 341ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Maclear, T.: 1838, Mem. Roy Astron. Soc. 10, 91Google Scholar
  48. McDonnell, J.A.M., Kissel, J., Grün, E., Grard, R.J.L., Langevin, Y., Olearczyk, R. E., Perry, C. H., Zarnecki, J. C.: 1986, 20th ESLAB Symp., ESA SP-250, Vol.!!, p. 25 Millis, R.L., Schleicher, D.G.: 1986, Nature 324, 646Google Scholar
  49. Moore, M.H., Donn, B.: 1982, Astrophys. J. 257, L 47Google Scholar
  50. Moore, M.H., Donn, B., Khanna, R., A’Hearn, M.F.: 1983, Icarus 54, 388ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pirronello, V., Brown, W.L., Lanzerotti, L.J., Marcantonio, K.J., Simmons, E.: 1982, Astrophys. J. 262, 636ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Probstein, R.F.: 1969, in Problems of Hydrodynamics and Continuum Mechanics, eds. F. Bisshopp et al., Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, p. 568Google Scholar
  53. Rickman, H.: 1986, ESA SP-249, p. 195Google Scholar
  54. Rössler, K.: 1986, ESA SP-249, p.161Google Scholar
  55. Sakata, A., Wada, S., Okutsu, Y., Shintani, H., Nakada, Y.: 1983, Nature 301, 493ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sakata, A., Wada, S., Tanabe, T., Onaka, T.: 1984, Astrophys. J. 287 L 51Google Scholar
  57. Samarasinha, N.H., A’Hearn, M.F., Hoban, S., Klinglesmith, D. A.: 1986, ESA SP-250, Vol. I, p. 487Google Scholar
  58. Sekanina, Z.: 1973, Astrophys. Letters 14, 175ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Sekanina, Z.: 1975, Icarus 25, 218ADSCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  60. Sekanina, Z.: 1981 a, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 9 113 Sekanina, Z.: 1981 b, ESA SP-174, p. 55Google Scholar
  61. Sekanina, Z.: 1982, Astron. J. 87, 161ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sekanina, Z.: 1983, in The Comet Halley Handbook, 2nd ed., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, p. 14Google Scholar
  63. Sekanina, Z.: 1986a, Adv. Space Res. 5 No. 12, p. 307 Sekanina, Z.: 1986b, IAU Circ. No. 4273 Google Scholar
  64. Sekanina, Z.: 1986c, IAU Circ. No. 4187Google Scholar
  65. Sekanina, Z.: 1986d, 20th ESLAB Symp., ESA SP-250, Vol. II, p. 131Google Scholar
  66. Sekanina, Z.: 1987, Nature 325, 326ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sekanina, Z., Larson, S.M.: 1983, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 15, 651ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Sekanina, Z., Larson, S.M.: 1984, Astron. J. 89, 1408, 1446ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sekanina, Z., Larson, S.M.: 1986a, Nature 321, 357ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sekanina, Z., Larson, S.M.: 1986b, Astron. J. 92, 462ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sekanina, Z., Larson, S.M.: 1986b, Astron. J. 92, 462ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Simpson, J. A., Sagdeev, R.Z., Tuzzolino, A.J., Perkins, M.A., Ksanformality, L.V., Rabinowitz, D., Lentz, G. A., Afonin, V.V., Ero, J., Keppler, E., Kosorokov, J., Petrova, E., Szabo, L., Umlauft, G.: 1986, Nature 321, 278ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Smoöuchowski, R.: 1982, J. Geophys. Res. 87, A422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smoluchowski, R.: 1985, in Ices in the Solar System, eds. J. Klinger, D. Benest, A. Dollfus, R. Smoluchowski, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 397Google Scholar
  75. Strazzulla, G.: 1985, Icarus 61, 48ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Strazzulla, G.: 1986, Icarus 67, 63ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Strazzulla, G., Calcagno, L., Foti, G., Sheng, K. L.: 1985, in Ices in the Solar System, eds. J. Klinger, D. Benest, A. Dollfus, R. Smoluchowski, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 273Google Scholar
  78. Strazzulla, G., Cataliotti, R.S., Calcagno, L., Foti, G.: 1984, Astron. Astrophys. 133, 77ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. Strazzulla, G., Pirronello, V., Foti, G.: 1983, Astron. Astrophys. 123, 93ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. Whipple, F. L.: 1950, Astrophys. J. 111, 375ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Whipple, F. L.: 1977, in Comets, Asteroids, Meteorites: Interrelations, Evolution, and Origins, ed. A. H. Delsemme, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, p. 25Google Scholar
  82. Zarnecki, J. C., McDonnell, J. A. M., Alexander, W. M., Burton, W. M., Hanner, M. S.: 1986, 20th ESLAB Symp., ESA SP-250, Vol. II, p. 185Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Sekanina
    • 1
  1. 1.MS 183-401, Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations