Classification and Synthesis of Dyes
The vast majority of the natural dyes used prior to the nineteenth century have been replaced by synthetic dyes discovered since then. The early advances made in organic chemistry were largely responsible for this remarkable revolution and for many years organic chemistry and dyestuffs chemistry were inextricably linked. However, as more areas of organic chemistry were investigated, e.g. the chemistry of natural products, so the development of organic chemistry depended to a decreasing extent upon dyestuffs research. This trend has more recently been reversed. Interest is once again focused upon dyes for, with their essentially planar it systems, they represent an interesting challenge to the application of the Molecular Orbital theories developed during the present century (see Appendix I).
KeywordsNitro Group Aromatic Amine Sulphonic Acid Group Diazonium Salt Electrophilic Attack
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- Much useful information may be obtained on the synthesis of dyes and their intermediates from the invaluable series, `The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes’ Vols. I–VIII by K. Venkataraman (ed.) and published by Academic Press (1952–1978) and references cited therein. Additional information may be obtained from the sources detailed belowGoogle Scholar
A. Azo Dyes (including diazotisation and coupling).
- 1.Abrahart, E. N.: Dyes and their intermediates. London: E. Arnold 1977Google Scholar
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