High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Phytoalexins

  • R. N. Strange
Part of the Modern Methods of Plant Analysis book series (MOLMETHPLANT, volume 5)


Phytoalexins have been defined as “low molecular weight, antimicrobial compounds that are both synthesized by and accumulated in plants after exposure to microorganisms” (Paxton 1981). They have been studied from many points of view; as natural products, as chemotaxonomic markers, as antimicrobial agents, and as the indirect products of gene derepression. Investigations of the mechanisms by which their accumulation is triggered (or, to use the accepted terminology, elicited) are numerous and considerable attention has also been paid to both biosynthesis and degradation. Above all, it is the putative role of phytoalexins in the defence of plants against microbial attack which provides the most important stimulus for their study. Recent work in this area has been encouraging and before long we may find plant breeders, in their quest for resistance, wishing to select lines with a high capacity for phytoalexin synthesis. If this does come about the requirement for speedy methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis will be enormous.


Ethyl Acetate Fraction Film Evaporation Soybean Cotyledon Microbial Challenge Phytoalexin Accumulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aguamah GE, Langcake P, Leworthy DP, Page JA, Pryce RJ, Strange RN (1981) Two novel stilbene phytoalexins from Arachis hypogaea. Phytochemistry (Oxf) 20: 1381–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey JA (1982) Mechanisms of phytoalexin accumulation. In: Bailey JA, Mansfield JW (eds) Phytoalexins. Blackie, Glasgow, pp 289–318Google Scholar
  3. Bailey JA, Berthier M (1981) Phytoalexin accumulation in chloroform-treated cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris. Phytochemistry (Oxf) 20: 187–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhattacharyya MA, Ward EWB (1985) Differential sensitivity of Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea isolates to glyceollin isomers. Physiol Plant Pathol 27: 299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clouse SD, Martenson AN, Gilchrist DG (1985) Rapid purification of host-specific pathotoxins from Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici by solid-phase adsorption on octadecyl silane. J Chromatogr 350: 255–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooksey CJ, Dahiya JS, Garratt PJ, Strange RN (1982) Two novel stilbene-2-carboxylic acid phytoalexins from Cajanus cajan. Phytochemistry (Oxf) 21: 2935–2938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cooksey CJ, Dahiya JS, Garratt PJ, Strange RN (1983) Sucrose: a constitutive elicitor of phytoalexin synthesis. Science 220: 1398–1400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coxon RD, O’Neill TM, Mansfield JW, Porter AEA (1980) Identification of three hy- droxyflavan phytoalexins from daffodil bulbs. Phytochemistry (Oxf) 19: 889–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dahiya JS, Strange RN, Bilyard KG, Cooksey CJ, Garratt PJ (1984) Two isoprenylated isoflavone phytoalexins from Cajanus cajan. Phytochemistry (Oxf) 23: 871–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dixon RA (1986) The phytoalexin response: elicitation, signalling and control of host gene expression. Biol Rev 61: 239–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Epperlein MM, Noronha-Dutra AA, Strange RN (1986) Involvement of the hydroxyl radical in the abiotic elicitation of phytoalexins in legumes. Physiol Plant Pathol 28: 67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goossens JF, Van Laere AJ (1983) High performance liquid chromatography of isoflavonoid phytoalexins in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). J Chromatogr 267: 439–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Homans AL, Fuchs A (1970) Direct bioautography on thin layer chromatograms as a method for detecting fungitoxic substances. J Chromatogr 51: 327–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Keen NT (1978) Phytoalexins: efficient extraction from leaves by a facilitated diffusion technique. Phytopathology 68: 1237–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee SM, Garas NA, Waiss AC (1986) High performance liquid chromatographic determination of sesquiterpenoid stress metabolites in Verticillium dahliae infected cotton stele. J Agric Food Chem 34: 490–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lyne RL, Mulheirn LJ, Leworthy DP (1976) New pterocarpinoid phytoalexins of soybean. J Chem Soc Chem Commun 497–498Google Scholar
  17. Lyon GD (1984) Comparison between phytoalexin concentrations and the extent of rotting of potato tubers inoculated with Erwinia carotovora sub sp. atroseptica, E. carotovora sub sp. carotovora or E. chrysanthemi. Phytopathol Z 111: 236–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Macko V, Wolpert TJ, Acklin W, Tawn B, Seibl J, Meili J, Arigoni D (1985) Characterization of victorin C, the major host-selective toxin from Cochliobolus victoriae: structure of degradation products. Experientia 41: 1366–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mansfield JW (1982) The role of phytoalexins in disease resistance. In: Bailey JA, Mansfield JW (eds) Phytoalexins. Blackie, Glasgow, pp 253–288Google Scholar
  20. Mansfield JW, Porter AEA, Smallman RV (1980) Dihydrowyerone derivatives as components of the furnoacetylenic phytoalexin response of tissues of Vicia faba. Phytochemistry (Oxf) 19: 1057–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mansfield JE, Barlow YM, Porter AEA (1984) Phytoalexin production by Vicia faba — a model system for the study of gene expression. In: Chapman GD, Tarawali SA (eds) Systems of cytogenetic analysis in Vicia faba L. Nijhoff, JunkGoogle Scholar
  22. Moesta P, Grisebach H (1982) L-2-Aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid inhibits phytoalexin accumulation in soybean with concomitant loss of resistance against Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea. Physiol Plant Pathol 21: 65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. O’Neill TM, Mansfield JW (1982) Mechanisms of resistance to Botrytis in narcissus bulbs. Physiol Plant Pathol 20: 243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Osswald WF (1985) High performance liquid chromatography of isoflavonoid phytoalexins from soybean (Glycine max L. Harosoy 63). J Chromatogr 333: 225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Paxton J (1981) Phytoalexins — a working redefinition. Phytopathol Z 101: 106–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Porter AEA, Smallman RV, Mansfield JW (1979) Analysis of furanoacetylenic phytoalexins from the broad bean plant by high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 172: 498–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rahe JE, Arnold RM (1975) Injury-related phaseollin accumulation in Phaseolus vulgaris and its implications with regard to specificity of host-parasite interaction. Can J Bot 51: 921–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ride JP, Drysdale RB (1972) A rapid method for the chemical estimation of filamentous fungi in plants. Physiol Plant Pathol 2: 7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rohringer R, Kim WK, Samborski DJ, Howes NK (1977) Calcofluor: an optical brightener for fluorescence microscopy of fungal plant parasites in leaves. Phytopathology 67: 808–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Seitz LM, Sauer DB, Burroughs R, Mohr ME, Hubbard JD (1979) Ergosterol as a measure of fungal growth. Phytopathology 69: 1201–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sims JJ, Keen NT, Honwad VK (1972) Hydroxyphaseollin, an induced antifungal compound from soybeans. Phytochemistry (Oxf) 11: 827–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Still WC, Kahn M, Mitra A (1978) Rapid chromatographic technique for preparative separations with moderate resolution. J Org Chem 43: 2923–2925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Strange RN, Ingham JL, Cole DL, Cavill ME, Edwards CE, Cooksey CJ, Garratt PJ (1985) Isolation of the phytoalexin medicarpin from leaflets of Arachis hypogaea and related species of the tribe Aeschynomeneae. Z Naturforsch 40: 313–316Google Scholar
  34. Wotton HR, Strange RN (1985) Circumstantial evidence for phytoalexin involvement in the resistance of peanuts to Aspergillus flavus. J Gen Microbiol 131: 487–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Yoshikawa M, Yamauchi K, Masago H (1978) Glyceollin: its role in restricting fungal growth in resistant soybean hypocotyls infected with Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae. Physiol Plant Pathol 12: 73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. N. Strange

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations