Use of the Galea in Reconstructive Craniofacial Surgery

  • Denys Montandon
  • R. Gumener
  • F. Marty
  • A. Zbrodowski
Conference paper


Recent articles have emphasized the advantages of using the galea or the temporo-parietal fascia for various reconstructive procedures (Avelar and Psillakis 1981; Brent and Byrd 1983; Byrd 1980; Brent et al. 1985; Maillard et al. 1984; Smith 1980; Tegtmeier and Gooding 1977). In most of these reports the galea is described as having been used as a vascularized sheet, usually based on the superficial temporal artery. In spite of several excellent morphological descriptions of the scalp published in past years (e.g., Ricbourg 1974), anatomical studies demonstrating the exact vascular network of the galea are lacking. It is important to understand the differential blood flow from the various arteries of the scalp, the relationship between vessels in the galea, the overlying dermis and the underlying epicranium, and also the differences between arterial and venous pathways.


Posite Exter 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Avelar JM, Psillakis JM (1981) The use of galea flaps in cranio-facial deformities. Ann Plast Surg 6: 464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brent B, Byrd HS (1983) Secondary ear reconstruction with cartilage grafts covered by axial, random and free flaps of temporoparietal fascia. Plast Reconstr Surg 72: 141–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brent B, Upton J, Acland RA, Shaw W, Finseth F, Rogers C (1985) Experience with the temporoparietal fascial free flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 76:177–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Byrd HS (1980) The use of subcutaneous axial facial flaps in reconstruction of the head. Ann Plast Surg 4:191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Erol OO (1976) The transformation of a free skin graft into a vascularized pedicled flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 58:470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Maillard GF, Gumener R, Montandon D (1984) Correction of depressed supratarsal sulcus by an arterial subcutaneous composite flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 74: 362–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Maillard GF, Montandon D (1982) Washio temporo-retro-auricular flap, its use in 20 patients. Plast Reconstr Surg 70:550–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Nahai F, Hurteau J, Vasconez LO (1978) Replantation of an entire scalp and ear by microvascular anastomosis of only 1 artery and 1 vein. Br J Plast Surg 31: 339–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Real JP (1985) Le lambeau de scalp total. Une réalité. Paper presented at the 30th National Congress of the French Society for Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, ParisGoogle Scholar
  10. Ricbourg B (1974) Arteres et veines de la face et du cuir chevelu. Thesis, Faculty of Medicine, ParisGoogle Scholar
  11. Smith RA (1980) The free fascial scalp flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 66: 204–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tegtmeier RE, Gooding RA (1977) The use of fascial flap in ear reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 60:406–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denys Montandon
  • R. Gumener
  • F. Marty
  • A. Zbrodowski
    • 1
  1. 1.GenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations