The development of space exploration and astronautics has undergone a major change in scope during the early eighties. This is quite apparent from the availability of a new space transportation system, the space shuttle, which offers a large cargo capability to low earth orbits with the novel features of full payload recoverability and nearly regular, frequent service. Along with this, a number of other aspects changed more gradually and less apparent. The role of man in space has shifted from a mainly technical piloting function to a much more active involvement, including scientific tasks and interactive work in space. This is illustrated by Figs. 1.1 and 1.2, contrasting the rather clumsy appearance of Astronaut Aldrin on the lunar surface during the Apollo 11 mission with the hands-on work of Payload Specialist Lichtenberg in the shirt-sleeve environment of Space!ab during STS-9.
KeywordsConvection Transportation Sedimentation Electrophoresis Polystyrene
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