Chloroplasts as a Whole

  • G. A. Berkowitz
  • M. Gibbs
Part of the Modern Methods of Plant Analysis book series (MOLMETHPLANT, volume 1)


Since the publication of the last edition of this series, the scope and depth of our understanding of the nature and regulation of photosynthesis has taken a rapid leap forward. Advancements in three areas are most noteable. The compartmentalization of photosynthetic processes has been elucidated with regards to different plant types (C3, C4, CAM, and intermediates of these classes). The regulatory interaction of the photochemical activities of the thylakoid and the functioning of the enzymes involved in carbon metabolism in the stroma; both in terms of photochemical mediated pH, Mg2+, and light regulation of photosynthetic enzymes and the effects of carbon metabolism in the stroma on the redox poising of the photochemical apparatus have been characterized. Also significant is the advancement in our understanding of the regulation of plastic localized carbon metabolism by extra-chloroplastic milieu parameters such as pH, and the level of cation, Pi, energy charge and reducing equivalents; most likely representing an interdependence of chloroplast, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial activities in situ.


Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Isolation Medium Intact Chloroplast Protoplast Formation Swing Bucket Rotor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aist JR (1976) Papillae and related wound plugs of plant cells. Annu Rev Phytopathol 14:145–163Google Scholar
  2. Arnon DI (1949) Copper enzymes in chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidases in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol 24:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bamberger E, Avron M (1975) Site of action of inhibitors of carbon dioxide assimilation by whole lettuce chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 56:481–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Belknap WR (1983) Partial purifications of intact chloroplasts from Chlamydomonas rein- hardtii. Plant Physiol 72:1130–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berkowitz GA, Gibbs M (1982a) Effect of osmotic stress on photosynthesis studied with the isolated spinach chloroplast. Generation and use of reducing power. Plant Physiol 70:1143–1148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berkowitz GA, Gibbs M (1982b) Effect of osmotic stress on photosynthesis studied with the isolated spinach chloroplast. Site-specific inhibition of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. Plant Physiol 70:1535–1540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berkowitz GA, Gibbs M (1983) Reduced osmotic potential effects on photosynthesis. Identification of stromal acidification as a mediating factor. Plant Physiol 71:905–911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Borowitzka MA (1976) Some unusual features of the ultrastructure of the chloroplasts of the green algal orderCaulerpales and their development. Protoplasma 89:129–147Google Scholar
  9. Bourne WF, Miflin BJ (1973) Studies on nitrite reductase in barley. Planta 111:47–56Google Scholar
  10. Brown RH, Rigsby LL, Akin DE (1983) Enclosure of mitochondria by chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 71:437–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Buchholz B, Reupke B, Bickel H, Schultz G (1979) Reconstitution of amino acid synthesis by combining spinach chloroplasts with other leaf organelles. Phytochemistry 18:1109–1111Google Scholar
  12. Burke J J, Wilson RF, Swafford JR (1982) Characterization of chloroplasts isolated from triazine-susceptible and triazine resistant biotypes of Brassica campestris L. Plant Physiol 70:24–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Carell EF (1969) Studies on chloroplast development and replication in Euglena I. Vitamin B12 and chloroplast replication. J Cell Biol 41:431–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chapman KSR, Berry J A, Hatch MD (1980) Photosynthetic metabolism in bundle sheath cells of the C4 species Zea Mays: sources of ATP and NADPH and the contribution of Photosystem II. Arch Biochem Biophys 202:330–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chua NH, Schmidt GW (1979) Transport of proteins into mitochondria and chloroplasts. J Cell Biol 81:461–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cline K, Andrews J, Mersey B, Newcomb EH, Keegstra K (1981) Separation and characterization of inner and outer envelope memebranes of pea chloroplasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:3595–3599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cobb AH (1977) The relationship of purity to photosynthetic activity in preparations of Codium fragile chloroplasts. Protoplasma 92:137–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Costes C, Burghoffer C, Joyard J, Block M, Douce R (1979) Occurrence and biosynthesis of violaxanthin in isolated spinach chloroplast envelope. FEBS Lett 103:17–21Google Scholar
  19. Day DA, Jenkins CLD, Hatch MD (1981) Isolation and properties of functional mesophyll protoplasts and chloroplasts from Zea Mays. Aust J Plant Physiol 8:21–29Google Scholar
  20. Demmig B, Gimmler H (1983) Properties of the isolated intact chloroplast at cytoplasmic K+ concentrations. Plant Physiol 73:169–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Demmig B, Winter K (1983) Photosynthetic characteristics of chloroplasts isolated from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., a halophilic plant capable of Crassulacean acid metabolism. Planta 159:66–76Google Scholar
  22. Douce R, Joyard J (1979) Structure and function of the plastid envelope. Adv Bot Res 7:1–116Google Scholar
  23. Edwards GE, Black CC (1971) Isolation of mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells from Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop, leaves and a scanning microscopy study of the internal leaf cell morphology. Plant Physiol 47:149–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Edwards GE, Robinson SP, Tyler NJC, Walker DA (1978a) A requirement for chelation in obtaining functional chloroplasts of sunflower and wheat. Arch Biochem Biophys 190:421–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Edwards GE, Robinson SP, Tyler NJC, Walker DA (1978b) Photosynthesis by isolated protoplasts, protoplast extracts, and chloroplasts of wheat. Influence of orthophos- phate, pyrophosphate, and adenylates. Plant Physiol 62:313–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Edwards GE, Lilley McCR, Craig S, Hatch MD (1979) Isolation of intact and functional chloroplasts from mesophyll and bundle sheath protoplasts of the C4 plant Panicum miliaceum. Plant Physiol 63:821–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ellis RJ (1977) Protein synthesis by isolated chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 463:185–215Google Scholar
  28. Ellis RJ, Hartley MR (1982) Preparation of higher plant chloroplasts active in protein and RNA synthesis. In: Edelman M, Hallick RB, Chua N-H (eds) Methods in chloroplast molecular biology. Elsevier Biomedical, Amsterdam, pp 169–188Google Scholar
  29. Evans PK, Cocking EC (1977) Isolated plant protoplasts. In: Street HE (ed) Plant tissue and cell culture. Univ California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  30. Giles KL, Sarafls V (1974) Impactions of rigeseent integuments as a new feature of some algal chloroplasts. Nature 248:512–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Grant BR, Wright SW (1980) Purity of chloroplasts prepared from the siphonous green alga, Caulerpa simpliciuscula, as determined by their ultrastructure and their enzymic content. Plant Physiol 66:130–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Grant BR, Howard RJ, Gayler KR (1976) Isolation and properties of chloroplasts from the siphonous green alga Caulerpa simpliciuscula. Aust J Plant Physiol 3:639–651Google Scholar
  33. Halberg M, Larsson C (1983) Highly purified intact chloroplasts from mesophyll protoplasts of the C4 plant Digitaria sanguinalis. Inhibition of phosphoglycerate reduction by orthophosphate and by phosphoenolpyruvate. Physiol Plant 57:330–338Google Scholar
  34. Hall DO (1972) Nomenclature for isolated chloroplasts. Nature 235:125–126Google Scholar
  35. Hampp R (1979) Kinetics of mitochondrial phosphate transport and rates of respiration and phosphorylation during greening of etiolated Avena leaves. Plants 144:325–332Google Scholar
  36. Hampp R (1980) Rapid separation of the plastid, mitochondrial, and cytoplasmic fractions from intact leaf protoplasts of Avena. Determination of in vivo ATP pool sizes during greening. Planta 150:291–298Google Scholar
  37. Hampp R, Ziegler H (1980) On the use ofAvena protoplasts to study chloroplast development. Planta 147:485–494Google Scholar
  38. Heber U, Santarius KA (1970) Direct and indirect transfer of ATP and ADP across the chloroplast envelope. Z Naturforsch 25b:718–728Google Scholar
  39. Heldt HW (1980) Measurement of metabolite movement across the envelope and of the pH in the stroma and the thylakoid space in intact chloroplasts. Methods Enzymol 69:604–613Google Scholar
  40. Heldt HW, Sauer F (1971) The inner membrane of the chloroplast envelope as the site of specific metabolite transport. Biochim Biophys Acta 234:83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Holdsworth RH (1971) The isolation and partial characterization of the pyrenoid protein of Eremosphaera viridis. J Cell Biol 51:499–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Horvath G, Droppa M, Mustardy LA, Faludi-Daniel A (1978) Functional characteristics of intact chloroplasts isolated from mesophyll protoplasts and bundle sheath cells of maize. Planta 141:239–244Google Scholar
  43. Huber SC, Edwards GE (1975) An evaluation of some parameters required for the enzymatic isolation of cells and protoplasts with CO2 fixation capacity from C3 and C4 grasses. Physiol Plant 35:203–209Google Scholar
  44. Jensen RG (1979) The isolation of intact leaf cells, protoplasts, and chloroplasts. In: Gibbs M, Latzko E (eds) Photosynthesis II: photosynthetic carbon metabolism and related processes. Encyclopedia of plant physiology, new ser. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Jensen RG, Bassham J A (1966) Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 4:1095–1101Google Scholar
  46. Kaiser WM, Kaiser G, Schoner S, Neimanis S (1981) Photosynthesis under osmotic stress. Differential recovery of photosynthetic activities of stroma enzymes, intact chloroplasts, protoplasts, and leaf slices after exposure to high solute concentrations. Plants 153:430—435Google Scholar
  47. Klein U, Chen C, Gibbs M (1983a) Photosynthetic properties of chloroplasts from Chla- mydomonas reinhardii. Plant Physiol 72:488–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Klein U, Chen C, Gibbs M, Piatt-Aloia KA (1983b) Cellular fractionation of Chlamydo- monas reinhardii with emphasis on the isolation of the chloroplast. Plant Physiol 72:481–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kombrink E, Wober G (1980) Preparation of intact chloroplasts by chemically induced lysis of the green alga Dunaliella marina. Planta 149:123–129Google Scholar
  50. Kow YW, Gibbs M (1982) Characterization of a photosynthesizing reconstituted spinach chloroplast preparation. Regulation by primer, adenylates, ferredoxin, and pyridine nucleotides. Plant Physiol 69:179–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Krueger RW, Miles D (1981) Photosynthesis in fescue I. High rate of electron transport and phosphorylation in chloroplasts of hexaploid plants. Plant Physiol 67:763–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Larsson C (1983) Partition in aqueous polymer two-phase systems. In: Hall JL, Moore AL (eds) Isolation of membranes and organelles from plant cells. Academic Press, New York, pp 277–309Google Scholar
  53. Larsson C, Andersson B, Roos G (1977) Scanning electron microscopy of different populations of chloroplasts isolated by phase partition. Plant Sci Lett 8:291–298Google Scholar
  54. Latzko E, Gibbs M (1974) “Alkaline” C1-fructose- 1,6-diphosphatase. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Chemie, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  55. Leeeh RM (1964) The isolation of structurally intact chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 79:637–639Google Scholar
  56. Leegood RC, Walker DA (1979) Isolation of protoplasts and chloroplasts from flag leaves of Triticum aestivum L. Plant Physiol 63:1212–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Leegood RC, Walker DA (1983) Chloroplasts. In: Hall JL, Moore AL (eds) Isolation of membranes and organelles from plant cells. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Lilley RMC, Larkum AWD (1981) Isolation of functionally intact rhodoplasts from Grif- fithsia monilis (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta). Plant Physiol 67:5–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lindhardt K, Walter K (1963) Phosphatases. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Academic Press, New York, pp 779–785Google Scholar
  60. Loomis WD (1974) Overcoming problems of phenolics and quinones in the isolation of plant enzymes and organelles. Methods Enzymol 31A:524–544Google Scholar
  61. Maury WJ, Huber SC, Moreland DE (1981) Effects of magnesium on intact chloroplasts II. Cation specificity and involvements of the envelope ATPase in (sodium) potassium/ proton exchange across the envelope. Plant Physiol 68:1257–1263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Miflin BJ (1974) The location of nitrite reductase and other enzymes related to amino acid biosynthesis in the plastids of roots and leaves. Plant Physiol 54:550–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Miflin BJ, Beevers H (1974) Isolation of intact plastids from a range of plant tissues. Plant Physiol 53:870–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mills WR, Joy KW (1980) A rapid method for isolation of purified, physiologically active chloroplasts, used to study the intracellular distribution of amino acids in pea leaves. Plants 148:75–83Google Scholar
  65. Mills WR, Lea PJ, Miflin BJ (1980) Photosynthetic formation of the aspartate family of amino acids in isolated chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 65:1166–1172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Monson RK, Rumpho ME, Edwards GE (1983) The influence of inorganic phosphate on photosynthesis in intact chloroplasts from Mesembry anthem urn crystallinum L. plants exhibiting C3 photosynthesis or Crassulacean acid metabolism. Plants 159:97–104Google Scholar
  67. Morgan J A, Brown RH (1979) Photosynthesis in grass species differing in carbon dioxide fixation pathways II. A search for species with intermediate gas exchange and anatomical characteristics. Plant Physiol 64:257–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Morgenthaler J-J, Price CA, Robinson JM, Gibbs M (1974) Photosynthetic activity of spinach chloroplasts after isopycnic centrifugation in gradients of silica. Plant Physiol 54:532–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Morgenthaler J-J, Marsden MPF, Price CA (1975) Factors affecting the separation of photosynthetically competent chloroplasts in gradients of silica sols. Arch Biochem Biophys 168:289–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mourioux G, Douce R (1981) Slow passive diffusion of orthophosphate between intact isolated chloroplasts and suspending medium. Plant Physiol 67:470–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nagata T, Ishii S (1979) A rapid method for isolation of mesophyll protoplasts. Can J Bot 57:1820–1823Google Scholar
  72. Nakatani HY, Barber J (1977) An improved method for isolating chloroplasts retaining their outer membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 461:510–512Google Scholar
  73. Nishida K, Sanada Y (1977) Carbon dioxide fixation in chloroplasts isolated from CAM plants. In: Mujachi S, Katoh S, Jujita Y, Shibuta K (eds) Photosynthetic organelles, structure and function. Special issue of Plant Cell Physiol 3:341–346Google Scholar
  74. Nishimura M, Akazawa T (1975) Photosynthetic activities of spinach leaf protoplasts. Plant Physiol 55:712–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Nishimura M, Graham D, Akazawa T (1976) Isolation of intact chloroplasts and other cell organelles from spinach leaf protoplasts. Plant Physiol 58:309–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. O’Neal D, Hew CS, Latzko E, Gibbs M (1972) Photosynthetic carbon metabolism of isolated corn chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 49:607–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Ortiz W, Reardon EM, Price CA (1980) Preparation of chloroplasts fromEuglena highly active in protein synthesis. Plant Physiol 66:291–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Otsuki Y, Takebe I (1969) Isolation of intact mesophyll cells and their protoplasts from higher plants. Plant Cell Physiol 10:917–921Google Scholar
  79. Perrin DD, Dempsey B (1974) Buffers for pH and metal ion control. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  80. Piazza G, Gibbs M (1983) Influence of adenosine phosphates and magnesium on photosynthesis in chloroplasts from peas, Sedum, and spinach. Plant Physiol 71:680–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Piazza G, Smith MG, Gibbs M (1982) Characterization of the formation and distribution of photosynthetic products by Sedum praealtum chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 70:1748–1758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Pilwat G, Hampp R, Zimmermann U (1980) Electrical field effects induced in membranes of developing chloroplasts. Planta 147:396–404Google Scholar
  83. Plaut Z (1971) Inhibition of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation in isolated spinach chloroplasts exposed to reduced osmotic potentials. Plant Physiol 48:591–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Price CA (1982) Centrifugation in density gradients. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  85. Price CA (1983) General principles of cell fractionation. In: Hall JL, Moore AL (eds) Isolation of membranes and organelles from plant cells. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  86. Price CA, Reardon EM (1982) Isolation of chloroplasts for protein synthesis from spinach and Euglena gracilis by centrifugation in silica sols. In: Edelman M, Hallick RB, Chua N-H (eds) Methods in chloroplast molecular biology. Elsevier Biomedical, Amsterdam, pp 189–210Google Scholar
  87. Radosevich SR, Devilliers OT (1976) Studies on the mechanism of S-triazine resistance in common groundsel. Weed Sci 4:229–232Google Scholar
  88. Rathnam CKM, Das VSR (1974) Nitrate metabolism in relation to the aspartate-type C-4 pathway of photosynthesis in Eleusine coracana. Can J Bot 52:2599–2605Google Scholar
  89. Rathnam CKM, Edwards GE (1976) Protoplasts as a tool for isolating functional chloroplasts from leaves. Plant Cell Physiol 173:177–186Google Scholar
  90. Rathnam CKM, Edwards GE (1977) C4 acid decarboxylation and CO2 donation to photosynthesis in bundle sheath strands and chloroplasts from species representing three groups of C4 plants. Arch Biochem Biophys 182:1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Robinson GP, Walker DA (1979) Rapid separation of the chloroplast and cytoplasmic fractions from intact leaf protoplasts. Arch Biochem Biophys 196:319–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Robinson SP, Wiskich JT (1977) Pyrophosphate inhibition of carbon dioxide fixation in isolated pea chloroplasts by uptake in exchange for endogenous adenine nucleotides. Plant Physiol 59:422–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Schlosser UG, Sachs H, Robinson DG (1976) Isolation of protoplasts by means of a “species-specific” autolysine in Chlamydomonas. Protoplasma 88:51–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Schmitt JM, Hermann RG (1977) Fractionation of cell organelles in silica sol radients. In: Prescott DM (ed) Methods in cell biology, vol 15. Academic Press, New York, pp 177–200Google Scholar
  95. Schnabl H, Hampp R (1980) Vicia guard cell protoplasts lack photosystem II activity. Na- turwissenschaften 67:465–466Google Scholar
  96. Shepard DC, Bidwell RGS (1973) Photosynthesis and carbon metabolism in a chloroplast preparation from Acetabularia. Protoplasma 76:289–307Google Scholar
  97. Spalding MH, Edwards GE (1980) Photosynthesis in isolated chloroplasts of the Crassu- lacean acid metabolism plant Sedum praealtum. Plant Physiol 65:1044–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Spalding MH, Schmitt MR, Ku SB, Edwards GE (1979) Intracellular localization of some key enzymes of Crassulacean acid metabolism is Sedum praealtum. Plant Physiol 63:738–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Spiller H, Böger P (1980) Photosynthetically active algal preparations. Methods Enzymol 69:105–121Google Scholar
  100. Stitt M, Heldt HW (1981) Physiological rates of starch breakdown in isolated intact spinach chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 68:755–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Stokes DM, Walker DA (1972) Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts. Inhibition by DL- glyceraldehyde of carbon dioxide assimilation. Biochem J 128:1147–1157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Takabe T, Nishimura M, Akazawa T (1979) Isolation of intact chloroplasts from spinach leaf by centrifugation in gradients of the modified silica “Percoll”. Agric Biol Chem 43:2137–2142Google Scholar
  103. Trench RK, Boyle JE, Smith DC (1973) Association between chloroplasts of Codium fragile and the mollusc Elysia viridis I. Characteristics of isolated Codium chloroplasts. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 184:51–61Google Scholar
  104. Van Ginkel G, Brown JS (1978) Endogenous eatalase and superoxide dismutase activities in photosynthetic membranes. FEBS Lett 94:284–286Google Scholar
  105. Walbot V (1977) Use of silica sol step gradients to prepare bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts fromPanicum maximum. Plant Physiol 60:102–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Walbot V, Hoisington DA (1982) Isolation of mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts from maize. In: Edelman M, Hallick RB, Chua N-H (eds) Methods in chloroplast molecular biology. Elsevier Biomedical, Amsterdam, pp 211–220Google Scholar
  107. Walden R, Leaver CJ (1981) Synthesis of chloroplast proteins during germination and early development of cucumber. Plant Physiol 67:1090–1096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Walker DA (1964) Improved rates of carbon dioxide fixation by illuminated chloroplasts. Biochem J 92:22–23Google Scholar
  109. Walker DA (1976) CO2 fixation by intact chloroplasts: photosynthetic induction and its relation to transport phenomena and control mechanisms. In: Barber J (ed) The intact chloroplast. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 235–278Google Scholar
  110. Walker DA (1980a) Preparation of higher plant chloroplasts. Methods Enzymol 69:94–104Google Scholar
  111. Walker JRL (1980b) Enzyme isolation from plants and the phenolic problem. What’s New in Plant Physiol 11:33–36Google Scholar
  112. Walker JRL, McCallion RF (1980) The selective inhibition of ortho- and para-diphenol oxidases. Phytochemistry 19:373–377Google Scholar
  113. Willison JHM, Davey MR (1976) Fraction I protein crystals in chloroplasts of isolated tobacco leaf protoplasts: a thin section and freeze etch morphological study. J Ultrastruct Res 55:303–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Wink M, Hartmann T (1982) Localization of the enzymes of quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in leaf chloroplasts ofLupinis polyphyllus. Plant Physiol 70:74–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Winter K, Foster JG, Edwards GE, Holtum JAM (1982) Intracellular localization of enzymes of carbon metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum exhibiting C3 photosynthetic characteristics of performing Crassulacean acid metabolism. Plant Physiol 69:300–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Wolosuik RA, Buchanan BB (1979) Studies on the regulation of chloroplast NADP-linked glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem 251:6456–6461Google Scholar
  117. Wright SW, Grant BR (1978) Properties of chloroplasts isolated from siphonous algae. Effects of osmotic shock and detergent treatment on intactness. Plant Physiol 61:768–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Yamagishi A, Satoh K, Katoh S (1981) The concentrations and thermodynamic activities of cations in intact Bryopsis chloroplasts. Bioehim Biophys Acta 637:252–263Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. A. Berkowitz
  • M. Gibbs

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations