Complement pp 379-406 | Cite as

Relationships Among the Complement, Kinin, Coagulation, and Fibrinolytic Systems

  • John S. Sundsmo
  • Daryl S. Fair


The activities of the plasma proteins have been elucidated in studies with isolated constituents, and this has to a certain extent biased our concepts by compartmentalizing proteins into particular functional systems. Blood is a highly complex mixture of cells, proteins, and lipoproteins responsible for maintaining homeostasis. The possibility that proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic systems may interact in blood was recognized over a decade ago. Studies of the Shwartzman reaction induced by endotoxin revealed a relationship between the complement protein C3, fibrinogen, and platelets. Other studies showed that streptokinase and urokinase induce complement activation in blood through Cl. C3 was also implicated in coagulant mechanisms induced in blood by antigen-antibody complexes. The outgrowth of these now classical investigations has been the recent recognition that thrombin, kallikrein, and plasmin can cleave complement proteins, and that complement protease Factor B may act in a reciprocal manner to cleave prothrombin and plasminogen. The possible interactions between the proteins of the complement, coagulation, kinin, and fibrinolytic systems are numerous and few have been investigated in any detail. In a few cases purified proteins have been employed and the molar concentrations of enzyme required to cleave a substrate in an opposing system seem to be exceedingly large.


Human Platelet Fibrinolytic System Human Complement Tissue Factor Activity Rabbit Platelet 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • John S. Sundsmo
    • 1
  • Daryl S. Fair
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ImmunologyResearch Institute of Scripps ClinicLa JollaUSA

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