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Complement pp 323-344 | Cite as

Regulation of Immune Response by Components of the Complement Cascade and Their Activated Fragments

  • William O. Weigle
  • Michael G. Goodman
  • Edward L. Morgan
  • Tony E. Hugli

Abstract

An activation of the complement system results in generation of a variety of cleavage products that mediate such phenomena as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, anaphylaxis, acute shock, numerous inflammatory reactions, acute allergic reactions, and increased vascular permeability [reviewed in 35, 36]. In addition, complement and its activated components have been reported to interact with the immune system and modulate the immune response [reviewed in 85]. That these activated components play an important role in the regulation of immune responses is not surprising since (1) complement along with antibody is responsible for tissue localization of antigen [16], (2) it is activated by antibody-antigen interactions [reviewed in 56], (3) it is involved in lymphokine production [40, 45, 83] and suppression [62], (4) the activated components of complement are most likely present in vivo in the microenvironment of the interacting cells of the immune system [85], (5) some of the components of complement are synthesized by lymphocytes [82], (6) genetic deficiencies in complement components have been associated with impairment of the immune system [57], and (7) receptors for complement are present on the surface of lymphocytes and macrophages [reviewed in 9, 76]. In addition, numerous reports suggest that cells involved in the immune response are activated by complement components and their fragments, and that such activation can modulate the immune response. Since the majority of the fragments that are involved in modulation of lymphocytes and their responses are generated upon activation of either C3 or C5, it appears that the activation of complement via both the classical and alternative pathway is equally important in immunoregulation, since the activation of complement by either pathway involves the cleavage of C3 and C5 to their active fragments [reviewed in 14].

Keywords

Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction Peritoneal Cell Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Cell Proliferative Response Cobra Venom Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • William O. Weigle
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael G. Goodman
    • 1
  • Edward L. Morgan
    • 1
  • Tony E. Hugli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ImmunologyScripps Clinic and Research FoundationLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Immunology IMM9Scripps Clinic and Research FoundationLa JollaUSA

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