Automatic Ventilation During Closed-Circuit Anaesthesia
Closed-circuit anaesthesia (CCA) was used as early as 1924, by Waters, using a to-and-fro system. However, lack of proper monitoring facilities and insight into the dynamics of gas uptake and distribution prevented CCA from becoming generally accepted for the safe administration of anaesthesia. The situation has since changed and it is today possible continuously to monitor oxygen, carbon dioxide and anaesthetic vapour concentrations. Additionally, knowledge of pulmonary pathophysiology has increased tremendously, with the result that employment of CCA may now be regarded as just as safe a way of administering anaesthesia as any other.
KeywordsDioxide Argon Bromide Helium Rubber
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.