Systems for 3D Display in Medical Imaging

  • Stephen M. Pizer
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 19)


Three-dimensional display can be accomplished by simulating either of the two means of three-dimensional presentation in nature: reflection from object surfaces and self-luminous objects. Both forms of display benefit significantly from real-time interaction.

Reflective displays are produced by shaded graphics, which require raster graphics hardware: a frame buffer, scan-out components, and often a processor. Hardware to speed display transformations is presently becoming available. The structures of both the standard and fast systems will be described. Also briefly presented will be the design of interactive head or hand trackers for moving and pointing within a 3D image.

Self-luminous display can be produced for surface representations made by dots or lines or for space-filling grey-scale distributions. In both cases one may calculate one or more projections which may be presented at various times or to different eyes to achieve the percept of depth. Alternatively one may place all of the individual points in 3-space by appropriate optical maneuvers. Display systems for both projective and optically based 3D display will be described. The former category includes vector, point, and raster graphics systems. The latter includes holography and systems with rotating or vibrating screens or mirrors, most interestingly the varifocal mirror and rotating LED-panel systems.


Frame Buffer Vector Graphic Hand Tracker Kinetic Depth Effect Raster Graphic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen M. Pizer
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Computer Science and RadiologyUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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