Discrete Models in Systems Engineering

  • Magdi S. Mahmoud
  • Madan G. Singh
Part of the Communications and Control Engineering Series book series (CCE)


In studying physical and engineering systems, one usually starts with a mathematical model which is obtained by considering some physical laws and/or empirical formulae. The behaviour of the system is then described by the evolution of appropriate variables (dependent variables) over time or over frequencies (the independent variable). For a broad class of systems, the values of the dependent variables are only known, or can only be defined, at discrete time instants. Typical examples of this are found in the fields of information processing, digital filters, managerial systems, environmental systems, certain command and control systems, socioeconomic systems, to name but a few. In addition, the rapid growth in computing capabilities and the improved technology of microprocessorshhas attracted systems analysts and modellers to utilise digital computers extensively in solving their problems. This is the case with many industrial processes where digital devices are often used. In such industrial applications, we have batch information processing in contrast to the continuous information processing which was required when traditional analog equipment was used.


Liquid Level Digital Control Digital Device Digital Control System Block Diagram Representation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magdi S. Mahmoud
    • 1
  • Madan G. Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.Kuwait UniversityKuwait
  2. 2.ManchesterUK

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