Energy and Food Requirements of Pelagic Aerial Seabirds in Different Regions of the African Sector of the Southern Ocean

  • R. W. Abrams

Summary

The African sector of the Southern Ocean includes 3 regions separated by oceanic fronts. The frontal areas between the sub-tropical, sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions are characterized by relatively high nutrient and biotic production levels. In addition, the Benguela upwelling system over the southwestern African continental shelf is especially productive. Daily Energy Expenditures (DEE) of seabirds capable of flight were compared to see whether differences in primary productivity between different areas at sea are reflected at higher trophic levels. Theoretical carbon flux to seabirds at sea during 1979–1981 was calculated to be between 0.040g C m2 yr−1 and 0.224 g C m2 yr−1. The greatest C flux to seabirds occurred in the sub-tropical, and in certain frontal, areas.

Keywords

Biomass Chlorophyll Phytoplankton Assimilation Hunt 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams RW (1982). Pelagic seabird distribution in relation to environmental features in the African sector of the Southern Ocean. In: Ilyichev VD, Gavrilov VM (eds) XVIII Congressus Inernationalis Ornithologicus. Abstracts of symposia and poster presentations. Moscow; Nauka pp 87–88Google Scholar
  2. Abrams RW, Griffiths AM (1981) Ecological structure of the pelagic seabird community in the Benguela Current region. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 5: 269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainley DG, Jacobs SS (1981) Seabird affinities for ocean and ice boundaries in the Antarctic. Deep-Sea Res 28A: 1173–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allanson BR, Hart RC, Lutjeharms JRE (1981) Observations on the nutrients, cholorophyll and primary production of the Southern Ocean south of Africa. S Afr J Antarct Res 10 /11: 3–14Google Scholar
  5. Anon. (1977) Biological Investigations of Marine Antarctic Systems and Stocks. BIOMASS Sci Ser 1 SCAR/SCOR, Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, p 31Google Scholar
  6. Brown RGB (1980) Seabirds as marine animals. In: Burger J, Olla BL, Winn HE (eds) Behavior of marine animals Vol 4, Plenum, New York, pp 1–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clarke MR, Prince PA (1981) Cephalopod remains and regurgitations of Black-browed and Grey-headed Albatrosses at South Georgia. Brit Antarct Sury Bull 54: 1–7Google Scholar
  8. Curl HS (1962) Analyses of carbon in marine plankton organisms. J Mar Res 20: 181–188Google Scholar
  9. Deacon GER (1982) Physical and biological zonation in the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res 29A: 1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. El-Sayed SZ (1970) On the productivity of the southern ocean. In: Holdgate MW (ed) Antarctic ecology. Academic Press New York, pp 119–135Google Scholar
  11. El-Sayed SZ (1978) Primary productivity and estimates of potential yields of the Southern Ocean. In: McWhinnie MA (ed) Polar research. AAAS selected symposium 7. Westview, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  12. Emery KO, Milliman JD, Uchupi E (1973) Physical properties and suspended matter of surface waters in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. J. Sediment Petrol 43 (3): 822–837Google Scholar
  13. Furness RW (1978) Energy requirements of seabird communities: a bioenergetic model. J Anim Ecol 47: 39–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Griffiths AM (1981) Biases in censuses of pelagic seabirds at sea in the Southern Ocean. In: Cooper J (ed) Proc sym birds of sea and shore, 1979. African Seabird Group, Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  15. Griffiths AM, Siegfried WR, Abrams RW (1982) Ecological structure of a pelagic seabird community in the Southern Ocean. Polar Biol 1: 39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Griffiths AM, Siegfried WR, Abrams RW (1982) Ecological structure of a pelagic seabird community in the Southern Ocean. Polar Biol 1: 39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holm-Hansen O, El-Sayed SZ, Francerschini GA, Cuhel RL (1977) Primary production and the factors controlling phytoplankton growth in the Southern Ocean. In: Llano GA (ed) Adaptations within Antarctic ecosystems; Proc 3rd SCAR symposium on Antarctic Biology. Smithsonian Inst, Washington, DC pp 11–50Google Scholar
  18. Hulley PA (1981) Results of the research cruises of FRV Walher Herwig’ to South America. LVII Family Myctophidae. Arch Fischereiwiss 31 (1): 1–300Google Scholar
  19. Hunt GL Jr, Gould PJ, Forsell DJ, Peterson FR (1981) Pelagic distribution of Marine Birds in the Eastern Bering Sea. In: Hood DW, Calder JA (eds) The eastern Bering Sea shelf: oceanography and resources. Vol 2. University Washington Press. Seattle, pp 689–717Google Scholar
  20. Iverson I (1977) The Living Resources of the Southern Ocean, UNDP, FAO, Rome, p 156Google Scholar
  21. King JR (1974) Seasonal allocation of time and energy resources in birds. In: Paynter RA (ed) Avian energetics. Nuttal Ornithological Club, Cambridge Mass, pp 4–85Google Scholar
  22. Longhurst AR (1981) Significance of spatial variability. In: Long-hurst AR (ed) Analysis of marine ecosystems. Academic Press, London, pp 415–442Google Scholar
  23. Lutjeharms JRE (1981) Spatial scales and intensities of circulation in the ocean areas adjacent to South Africa. Deep-Sea Res 28A (11): 1289–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lutjeharms JRE, Valentine HR (to be published) Southern Ocean thermal fronts south of Africa. Deep-Sea ResGoogle Scholar
  25. Makarov RR, Naumov AG, Sherster VV (1970) The biology and distribution of the Antarctic krill. In: Holdgate MV (ed) Antarctic ecology. Academic Press, London, pp 173–176Google Scholar
  26. Mauchline J (1980) Studies on patches of krill, Euphausia superbaDana. BIOMASS Handbook 6. SCAR/SCOR, Duntsaffnage Marine Research Laboratory, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  27. McRoy CP and Goering JT (1976) The influence of ice on the primary productivity of the Bering Sea. In: Hood D, Kelly E (eds) The oceanography of the Bering Sea. Univ Alaska Inst of Marine Sciences, pp 403–421Google Scholar
  28. Nemoto T, Harrison G (1981) High latitude ecosystems. In: Long-hurst AR (ed) Analysis of marine ecosystems. Academic Press, London, pp 95–126Google Scholar
  29. Owen RW (1981) Fronts and eddies in the sea: mechanisms, interactions and biological effects. In: Longhurst AR (ed) Analysis of marine ecosystems. Academic, London, pp 197–234Google Scholar
  30. Pennycuick CJ (1982) The flight of petrels and albatrosses (Procellariiformes), observed in South Georgia and its vicinity. Phils Trans R Soc Lond B 300: 75–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Peterson RG, Nowlin WD Jr, Whitworth T (1982) Generation and evolution of a cyclonic ring at Drake Passage in early 1979. J Phys Ocean 12: 712–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Prevost J (1981) Population and energy requirements of Antarctic birds. BIOMASS Sci Ser II SCAR/SCOR, Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, pp 125–137Google Scholar
  33. Prince PA (1980) The food and feeding ecology of Grey-headed Albatross (Diomedea chrysostoma)and Black-browed Albatross (D. melanophris). Ibis 122: 476–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ryther JH, Menzel DW, Barber RT (1973) Primary productivity and sizes of pools of organic carbon. MarBiol 19 (4): 298–306Google Scholar
  35. Sanger GA (1972) Preliminary standing stock and biomass estimates of seabirds in the Subarctic Pacific Region. In: Takenouti A Y (ed) Biological oceanography of the northern Pacific Ocean. Idenitsu Shoten, Tokyo, pp 589–611Google Scholar
  36. Schaeffer MB (1970) Men, birds and anchovies in the Peru current-dynamic interactions. Trans Am Fish Soc 99: 461–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schneider D (1982) Fronts and seabird aggregation in the southeastern Bering Sea. Mar Ecol hog Ser 10: 101–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schneider D, Hunt GL (1982) Carbon flux to seabirds in waters with different mixing regimes in the southeastern Bering Sea. Mar Biol 67: 337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tranter DJ (1982) Interliking of physical and biological processes in the Antarctic Ocean. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 20: 11–35Google Scholar
  40. Walsberg GE (1980) Energy expenditure in free-living birds: patterns and diversity. In: Nohring R (ed) Acta XVII Congressus Internationalis Ornithologicus: 300–305 Deutsche Ornithologen Gesellschaft, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  41. Weathers WW, Nagy KA (1980) Simùltaneous doubly-labelled water (HHO) and time-budget estimates of daily energy expenditure in Phainopepla nitens. Auk 97: 861–867Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. Abrams
    • 1
  1. 1.FitzPatrick InstituteUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations