Machines That Walk

  • Marc H. Raibert
  • H. Benjamin BrownJr.
  • Seshashayee S. Murthy
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 11)


This paper explores the notion that the control of dynamically stable legged systems that locomote in 3-space can be decomposed into a planar part and an extra-planar part. The planar part generates the large leg and body motions that raise and lower the legs to achieve stepping, that propel the system forward, and that maintain balance. The planar part of the control system deals only with 2D dynamics. The extra-planar part of the locomotion control system suppresses motion in those degrees of freedom that would cause deviation from the plane of motion. These degrees of freedom include roll of the body, yaw of the body, and translation perpendicular to the intended direction of travel.

Study of 2D one-legged hopping systems shows that the planar part of the control system may be quite simple, incorporating separate controllers for hopping height, running velocity, and body attitude. We review data from such planar systems, both simulated and physical, that illustrate the ability to hop in place, to run at a specified rate, to travel from place to place, and to leap over obstacles. Simulations of a 3D one-legged system show that the extra-planar part suppresses roll and yaw with good precision, while the planar part behaves as it did in 2D. Using the planar and extra-planar controls, the simulated 3D system traversed paths composed of straight segments.


Inverted Pendulum Lateral Translation Forward Velocity Planar Part Servo Valve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc H. Raibert
    • 1
  • H. Benjamin BrownJr.
    • 1
  • Seshashayee S. Murthy
    • 1
  1. 1.The Robotics Institute and Department of Computer ScienceCarnegie-Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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