Compiling Augmented Transition Networks into MacLisp

  • Joachim Laubsch
  • Karl Barth
Part of the Symbolic Computation book series (SYMBOLIC)


It has been demonstrated in a wide variety of “question answering systems” and other natural language interfaces that ATN-grammars provide a practical tool which can accommodate a variety of language theories. We report here on the experience we gathered at the “Man Machine Communication Group” (University of Stuttgart) with the compilation of Augmented Transition Networks into Lisp, and some applications of ATN-grammars.


Semantic Form Lexical Entry Natural Language Interface Continuation Function Association List 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barth, K. [1977] Zur Implementierung eines Lehrsystems für LISP. MAThesis, Inst. f. Informatik, Univ. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  2. Barth, K. [1978] ATN-Com: Ein Compiler für erweiterte Ubergangsnetze. MMK Memo 7, IfI, Univ. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  3. Bates, M. [1978] The Theory and Practice of Augmented Transition Network Grammars. In: L. Bole (Ed.) Natural Language Communication with Computers. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  4. Bawden, D., Greenblatt, R., Holloway, J., Knight, T., Moon, D. & Weinreb, D. [1979] The Lisp machine. In: P. Winston & R. Brown (Eds.) Artificial Intelligence: an MIT Perspective. Vol. 2, The MIT Press, Cambr., Ma.Google Scholar
  5. Bobrow, D.G. and Fraser, J.B. [1969] An Augmented State Transition Network Analysis Procedure. Proc. IJCAI1, 557–567.Google Scholar
  6. Bobrow, D. & Wegbreit, B. [1973] A Model and Stack Implementation of Multiple Environments. Comm. ACM 16, Vol. 10, 591–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boyer, R.S. & Moore, J.S. [1979] A Computational Logic. Academic Press, New York.MATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, J.S., Burton, R.R. & Bell, A.G. [1974] SOPHIE - a Sophisticated Instructional Environment for Teaching Electronic Troubleshooting. BBN Report 2790, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  9. Burton, R.R. & Woods, W.A. [1976] A Compiling System for Augmented Transition Networks. Preprints of 6. COLING Univ. of Ottawa.Google Scholar
  10. Burton, R.R. [1976] Semantic Grammar: An Engineering Technique for Constructing Natural Language Understanding Systems. BBN Report No. 3453, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  11. Charniak, E., Riesbeck, C. & McDermott, D.V. [1980] Artificial Intelli gence Programming. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Hillsdayle, N.J.Google Scholar
  12. Christaller, T. [1980] Manual für eine ATN-Programmiersprache. In: T. Christaller & D. Metzing (Eds.) Augmented Transition Network Grammatiken, Teil II, 173–208.Google Scholar
  13. Laubsch, J. et al. [1976] MacLisp Manual. MMK Memo 3, Institut für In formatik, Universität Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  14. Laubsch, J. [1979] Interfacing a semantic net with an augmented transition network. Proc. of the 6th Intern. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, 516–8, Tokio.Google Scholar
  15. Laubsch, J. [1980] Leitfaden zum Entwerfen semantischer Grammatiken. In: T. Christaller & D. Metzing (Eds.) Augmented Transition Network Grammatiken. (Band 2). Einhorn Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  16. Laubsch, J. & Roesner, D. [1980] Active schemata and their role in semantic parsing. COLING 80, Tokio.Google Scholar
  17. Moon, D. [1978] MacLisp Reference Manual, Parts 1, 2, 3 (revised edition). MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  18. Rathke, C. & Sonntag, B. [1979] Einsatz semantischer Grammatiken in Frage/Antwortsystemen. MA Thesis, IfI, Univ. Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  19. Schank, R.C. (Ed.) [1975] Conceptual Information Processing. North Holland, Amsterdam.MATHGoogle Scholar
  20. Simmons, R.F. & Bennet-Novak, G. [1975] Semantically Analyzing an English Subset for the Clown’s Microworld, AJCL Microfiche 18.Google Scholar
  21. Stallman, R.M. [1979] EMACS: The Extensible Customizable, Self-Documenting Display Editor. MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Memo 519, Cambridge, USA.Google Scholar
  22. Steele, G.L. [1977] Debunking the “Expensive Procedure Call” Myth or, Procedure Call Implementations considered Harmful or, Lambda: the Ultimate Goto. MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo 443.Google Scholar
  23. Steele, G.L. & Sussmann, G.J. [1979] Design of LISP-Based Processors or, SCHEME: A Dielectric LISP or, Finite Memories Considered Harmful or, LAMBDA: The Ultimate Opcode. MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo 514.Google Scholar
  24. Teitelman, W. [1972] Automated Programmering - The Programmer’s Assistant. Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference.Google Scholar
  25. Weinreb, D. & Moon, D. [1981] Lisp Machine Manual. Third Edition, MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  26. Weyrauch, R.W. [1977] A Users Manual for FOL. Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo 235.Google Scholar
  27. Winston, P.H., Horn, B.K. [1981] Lisp. Addison Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Ma.MATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Woods, W.A. [1970] Transition Network Grammars for Natural Language Analysis. CACM 13, 591–606.MATHGoogle Scholar
  29. Woods, W.A. et al. [1976] Speech Understanding Systems. Final Report, Vol. 5: Trip, BBN Rep. 3438. Bolt, Beranek & Newman, Cambr., Ma.Google Scholar
  30. Woods, W.A. [1977] Semantics and Quantification in Natural Language Question Answering. BBN Report No. 3687. Bolt, Beranek & Newman, Cambridge, Ma.Google Scholar
  31. Woods, W.A. [1978] Generalizations of ATN Grammars. In: Research in Natural Language Understanding, BBN Rep. No. 3963, Bolt, Beranek & Newman, Cambridge, MaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joachim Laubsch
    • 1
  • Karl Barth
    • 2
  1. 1.The Open UniversityMilton KeynesEngland
  2. 2.Institut für InformatikUniversität StuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations