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Zusammenfassung

Als Hypopharynx wird der untere Anteil des aus drei Abschnitten bestehenden Pharynx (Pars nasalis, oberhalb des weichen Gaumens; Pars oralis, zwischen Gaumen und Kehlkopfeingang; Pars laryngea, hinter dem Kehlkopfeingang gelegen) bezeichnet. Er ist der längste dieser drei Abschnitte, beginnt am Oberrand der Epiglottis und geht hinter dem Ringknorpel in die Speiseröhre über. Die Vorderwand stellt oben der von Epiglottis und Plicae aryepiglotticae eingefaßte Kehlkopfeingang dar, unten die Rückfläche der Stellknorpel und des Ringknorpels. Die Hinterwand liegt dem 3.–6. Halswirbel an. In Ruhe berühren sich unter dem Kehlkopfeingang Hinterwand und Vorderwand. Die Schleimhaut besteht aus mehrschichtigem Plattenepithel, einer schwachen Lamina propria und einer kräftigen Muscularis mucosae. Sie ist an der Rückwand des Kehlkopfs leicht abhebbar und in diesem Abschnitt von einem besonders starken Venennetz unterpolstert, das den Recessus piriformis freiläßt und die von Skelettanteilen, Ringknorpel und Wirbelsäule unterlagerte Pharynxwand vor Druck schützt. Der Recessus piriformis ist lateral der Plicae aryepiglotticae erkennbar. Er liegt somit zwischen der Schildknorpelplatte und den Plicae aryepiglotticae. Durch den Recessus piriformis verläuft unter der Plica die A. und V. laryng. sup. sowie der N. laryng. sup., welcher die Schleimhaut des Recessus piriformis versorgt. Die Pharynxmuskulatur setzt sich aus ringförmigen Schlundschnürern (Konstriktoren) oder längsgerichteten Hebern (Levatoren) zusammen, die entweder vom N. glossopharyngeus oder dem N. vagus versorgt werden. Die anatomischen Verhältnisse sind in den beiden nachfolgenden Abbildungen in Form eines Medianschnitts (Abb. 1) und schematisch (Abb. 2) dargestellt.

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