Software Reliability Models: Concepts, Classification, Comparisons, and Practice

  • John D. Musa
  • Kazuhira Okumoto
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 3)

Abstract

Basic software reliability concepts and definitions are discussed. A scheme for classifying software reliability models is presented. A set of criteria for comparing models that is generally accepted by workers in the field is described. Results of some general comparisons of groups of models are provided. The Musa execution time model is described in some detail. Finally, practical aspects of applying this model to software systems are discussed.

Keywords

Prefix Alloca 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    J. D. Musa, “Software reliability measures applied to system engineering,”Proc. NCC 1979,pp. 941–946.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. D. Musa, “The use of software reliability measures in project management,”Proc. COMPSAC 78,Chicago, Illinois, 14–vember 1978, pp. 493–498.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    P. A. Hamilton and J. D. Musa, “Measuring the reliability of computation center software,”Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Soft. Eng. ,Atlanta, Georgia, 10–12 May 1978, pp. 29–36.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    J. D. Musa, A. Iannino, “Software reliability modeling-accounting for program size variation due to integration or design changes,”ACM SIG-METRICS Performance Evaluation Review,10(2), pp. 16–25.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    G. J. Myers,The Art of Software Testing,Wiley: New York, 1979, pp. 44– 50.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    H. Hecht, “Measurement, estimation, and prediction of software reliability.”Software Engineering Technology-Volume 2,Maidenhead, Berkshire, England: Infotech International, 1977, pp. 209–224.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    J. D. Musa, K. Okumoto, “A comparison of goodness of fit of software reliability model groups,” paper in preparation.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    J. D. Musa, “A theory of software reliability and its application,”IEEE Trans. Software Engineering,SE-1(3), September, 1975, pp. 312–327.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    A. L. Goel, K. Okumoto, “Time-dependent error-detection rate model for software reliability and other performance measures,”IEEE Trans. Rel,R-28(3), August 1979, pp. 206–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    P. Moranda, “Predictions of software reliability during debugging,”Proc. Ann. Reliability and Maintainability Symposium,Washington, D. C, January 1975, pp. 327–332.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    N. F. Schneidewind, “Analysis of error processes in computer software,”Proc. 1975 International Conference Reliable Software,Los Angeles, April 21–23, 1975, pp. 337–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Z. Jelinski, P. B. Moranda, “Software reliability research,” inStatistical Computer Performance Evaluation,W. Freiberger, Ed., New York: Academic, 1972, pp. 465–484.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    M. Shooman, “Probabilistic models for software reliability prediction,” inStatistical Computer Performance Evaluation,see [12], pp. 485–502.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    G. J. Schick, R. W. Wolverton, “Assessment of software reliability,”Proc. Operations Research,Physica-Verlag, Wurzberg-Wien, 1973, pp. 395–422.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    W. L. Wagoner,“The Final Report of Software Reliability Measurement Study”,Aerospace Report No. TOR-0074(4112)-1, August 1973.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    G. J. Schick, R. W. Wolverton, “An analysis of competing software reliability models,”IEEE Trans. Software Engineering,SE-4(2), March 1978, pp. 104–120.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    B. Littlewood, “A Bayesian differential debugging model for software reliability,”Proc. COMPSAC 1980,pp. 511–519.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    A. L. Goel, K. Okumoto, “An analysis of recurrent software errors in a real-time control system,”Proc. ACM Conference,1978, pp. 496–501.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    B. Littlewood, J. L. Verrall, “A Bayesian reliability growth model for computer software,”Journal Royal Stat. Soc.-Series C,22(2), 1973, pp.332–346.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    J. D. Musa, “The measurement and management of software reliability,”Proc. IEEE,68(9), 1980, pp. 1131–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    A. Iannino, B. Littlewood, J. D. Musa, K. Okumoto, “Criteria for software reliability model comparisons,” paper presented at4th Workshop on Software Performance Evaluation,Blue Mountain Lake, N. Y., Aug. 11–14, 1981.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    J. D. Musa,Software Reliability Data,report available from Data and Analysis Center for Software, Rome Air Development Center, Rome, NY.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    A. M. B. Miller,A Study of the Musa Reliability Model,M. S. Thesis, Univ. of Maryland, 1980.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    J. D. Musa, unpublished software reliability data.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    A. N. Sukert,A Software Reliability Modeling Study,Rome Air Development Center Report RADC-TR-76–247, August 1976.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    J. D. Musa, K. Okumoto, “A comparison of software reliability models-execution time vs calendar time”, paper in preparation.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    V. K. Rohatgi,An Introduction to Probability theory and Mathematical Statistics,Wiley: New York, 1976, pp. 545–547.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    J. D. Musa, “Validity of the execution time theory of software reliability,”IEEE Trans. Rel. ,R-28(3), pp. 181–191, Aug. 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    J. D. Musa, “Software reliability measurement,” J.Syst. Software,1(3), pp. 223–241, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    J. D. Musa,Program for Software Reliability and System Test Schedule Estimation-User’s Guide,available from the author.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    J. D. Musa and P. A. Hamilton,Program for Software Reliability and System Test Schedule Estimation-Program Documentation,available from the author.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. Musa
    • 1
  • Kazuhira Okumoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Bell LaboratoriesWhippanyUSA

Personalised recommendations