• J. Christiansen
  • W. Witthuhn
Part of the Topics in Current Physics book series (TCPHY, volume 31)


The charge distribution of an atomic nucleus interacts with the electromagnetic fields produced by the extranuclear charges of the shell electrons or the constituents of the solid-state surroundings, or by totally external sources such as an applied magnetic field. This hyperfine interaction results in a shift and a splitting of the nuclear and atomic levels. The hyperfine interaction Hamiltonian Hhf can be expressed conveniently in terms of a multipole expansion:
$$ {{H}_{{hf}}} = H(EO) + H(M1) + H(E2) + \ldots , $$
where H(E0) denotes the electric monopole, H(M1) the magnetic dipole, H(E2) the electric quadrupole term, etc. They correspond to the moments of the nucleus not required by symmetry to vanish.


Angular Distribution Nuclear Reaction Hyperfine Interaction Electric Field Gradient Quadrupole Interaction 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Christiansen
  • W. Witthuhn

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