Mining Damage Above Ground
Movements and deformation of the ground produce various forms of damage at the populated surface, depending on whether residential houses, industrial installations, communications networks, public utility supply mains, or agricultural land are concerned. Damage to buildings results from tilting, curvature, and linear deformation of the ground built on. With the majority of communications installations and canalized waterways, it is subsidence and the compression or extension of the subgrade which alter the gradient of their alignment or deform the rails, road surfaces, and conduits concerned to the point of failure. With underground cables and pipelines, on the other hand, it is only linear deformation which causes damage. Subsidence on its own can cause mining damage to fields, meadows, drainage channels, canals, and watercourses. Damage resulting from ground displacement is found only in service piping branching off to individual buildings and in extensive conveyor-belt installations (Table 20).
KeywordsGround Movement Groundwater Level Earth Pressure Mining Damage Floor Slab
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