Liquid Crystals

  • L. A. Shuvalov
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 37)


The liquid-crystal (mesomorphous) state inherent in some organic substances consisting of elongated molecules (Fig. 8.1) is characterized by parallel stacking of such molecules, i.e., by a long-range orientation order [8.1, 8.2]. The corresponding thermodynamic phase has a definite region of its own in the phase diagram. Some substances can form not one, but several liquid-crystal phases differing in structure [2.5]. As regards their macroscopic rheological properties, liquid crystals occupy an intermediate position between true solid crystals and true (isotropic) liquids: they are fluid, but anisotropic. The viscosity of liquid crystals ranges from that of water to that of a thick oil. “Vitrified” liquid crystals resulting from supercooling are also known. The anisotropy of liquid crystals manifests itself in a number of their properties: optical, electrical, magnetic, etc. [8.1–8.15].


Liquid Crystal Nematic Liquid Crystal Nematic Phase Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Smectic Layer 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. Shuvalov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of CrystallographyAcademy of Sciences of the USSRMoscowUSSR

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