Callus Formation and Anthocyanin Production in Cultures of Haplopappus gracilis
Cultures of higher plant cells can accumulate a variety of secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, alkaloids, steroids or certain pigments. Some of these secondary products can accumulate in the medium and may inhibit growth. This is particularly true of polyphenols. Other compounds, anthocyanins for instance, are not secreted by viable cells. Anthocyanins are a group of red, blue or violet pigments which occur in the vacuolar sap of plant cells, often in the epidermis of flowers and fruits. The products of hydrolysis of an anthocyanin are an aglycone bearing the generic name anthocyanidin and a glycoside unit, often glucose. Cultures which possess the ability to synthesise and accumulate pigments tend to lose this property during prolonged cultivation. This appears to be a phenomenon similar to the loss of morphogenetic capability with ageing of tissue cultures. Cells which can synthesise and accumulate pigments provide useful material in a practical course because the appearance and accumulation of the pigment can be monitored visually, as for example, with anthocyanin.
KeywordsCallus Formation Culture Tube Pasteur Pipette Cotton Wool Pigment Formation
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