Possible Mechanisms of Immunotherapy Action in Acute Nonlymphatic Leukemia: Macrophage Production of Colony-Stimulating Activity
Earlier studies show that immunotherapy (IT) improves prognosis in acute nonlymphatic leukemia (ANLL), and that ANLL cells probably have tumor-associated antigens, for autologous lymphocytes can react to them. Also, IT seems to immunize against allogeneic ANLL cells, but there is no cross-immunity to autologous ones. Moreover, patients immunized against their ANLL cells have no better prognosis than patients not having lymphocytes reacting to their ANLL cells. It has also been suggested that IT causes nonspecific immunostimulation, but IT patients’ lymphocytes actually react less than those of patients not given IT. The current hypothesis is macrophage activation: Lymphocyte suppression in IT could be explained by suppressor macrophages. Colony-stimulating activity, produced by bone marrow macrophages, decreases during remission in patients not given IT, but not in IT patients. Numerically, blood cells from patients given IT form more colonies than those from patients not given IT. Three of eight patients given IT had more colonies than the upper normal limit.
KeywordsAcute Myeloid Leukemia Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Cancer Immunol Immunotherapy Action Bone Marrow Macrophage
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