Possible Mechanisms of Immunotherapy Action in Acute Nonlymphatic Leukemia: Macrophage Production of Colony-Stimulating Activity

  • P. Reizenstein
  • B. Andersson
  • M. Beran
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 80)


Earlier studies show that immunotherapy (IT) improves prognosis in acute nonlymphatic leukemia (ANLL), and that ANLL cells probably have tumor-associated antigens, for autologous lymphocytes can react to them. Also, IT seems to immunize against allogeneic ANLL cells, but there is no cross-immunity to autologous ones. Moreover, patients immunized against their ANLL cells have no better prognosis than patients not having lymphocytes reacting to their ANLL cells. It has also been suggested that IT causes nonspecific immunostimulation, but IT patients’ lymphocytes actually react less than those of patients not given IT. The current hypothesis is macrophage activation: Lymphocyte suppression in IT could be explained by suppressor macrophages. Colony-stimulating activity, produced by bone marrow macrophages, decreases during remission in patients not given IT, but not in IT patients. Numerically, blood cells from patients given IT form more colonies than those from patients not given IT. Three of eight patients given IT had more colonies than the upper normal limit.


Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Cancer Immunol Immunotherapy Action Bone Marrow Macrophage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Beran M, Reizenstein P, Udén A-M (1980) Response to treatment in acute non-lymphatic leukemia: Prognostic value of colony-forming and colony-stimulating capacities of bone marrow and blood cells compared to other parameters. Br J Haematol 44: 39–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Butler N (1978) Colony-stimulating activity after BCG stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Galton D, Kay H, Reizenstein P, Penchansky M, Vogler W, Whittaker J (1977) Infection and second-remission rates in patients having immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Lancet 2: 973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Harris R, Zuhrie A, Read C, Freeman C, Melver JE, Geary CG, Delamore IW, Tooth N (to be published) Randomised trial of immunotherapy alone versus no maintenance treatment in adult AML. In: Terry W (ed) Immunotherapy of cancer. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hollinshead AC (1978) Active-specific immunotherapy. Immunotherapy of human cancer. Raven Press, New York, pp 213–232Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miale T, Stenke L, Penschansky M, Lehtinen T, Reizenstein P (1979) The role of macrophages in phagocytosis and mixed leukocyte reactivity in human acute myeloid leukemia. Immunol Commun 8:279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Norris D, Weston W, Tuberger D, Rose B, Odom L (1979) Immunotherapy as therapeutic regimen. Cancer Immunol Immunother 7:15–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ohno R, Yamada K, Ezaki K (1979) Response of remission lymphocytes to autochthonous leukemic cells, no correlation with the prognosis. Abstr Int Congr Haematol Paris p 165Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pauli C, Vanky F, Hast R, Lindemalm C, Udén A-M, Reizenstein P (1978) Cell-mediated immunity in human acute myeloblasts leukemia. Cancer Immunol Immunother 5:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10..
    Reizenstein P (to be published) BCG plus leukemic cell-therapy of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. In: Terry E (ed) Immunotherapy of cancer: Present status of trials in man. Raven Press, New York, p 25Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Reizenstein P, Miale T (1978) Immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia in man. In: Rainer A (ed) Immunotherapy of malignant diseases. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, pp 441–460Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Reizenstein P, Ogier C, Sjögren A-M (to be published) Immunotherapy versus chemotherapy of AML. Response to PHA, allogeneic lymphocytes and leukemic myeloblasts of remission lymphocytes from leukemic patients. 1979 EORTC plenary meeting. In: Mathe G, Muggia FM (eds) Cancer chemo- and immunopharmacology II. Recent results in cancer research, vol 75. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schorlemmer H, Opitz W, Etschenberg E, Haddunger N (1979) Macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity. Abstr Physiol Chem 360:1193Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singer I, Bernstein I (1978) Granulopoietic increase by BCG in mice. Exp Hematol 6:760–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Uden A-M, Lindemalm Ch, Pauli C, Vanky F, Reizenstein P (1978) Effects of immunotherapy and chemotherapy on immunocompetence. A study of patients with acute myeloblasts leukemia in remission. Cancer Immunol Immunother 4:239—245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zigelbhom I (1979) Deficiency of antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and mitogen-induced cellular cytotoxicity effector cell function in patients with AML in remission. Cancer Res 39:3357–3362Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Reizenstein
    • 1
  • B. Andersson
    • 1
  • M. Beran
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Hematology, Department of MedicineKarolinska HospitalStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations