Almost every living biological membrane maintains an electrical potential difference between the two adjacent solutions. This applies to the cytoplasmic membrane of single cells as well as to tissue membranes such as epithelial and endothelial layers and also to the membranes of subcellular organelles, in particular of mitochondria. Even vesicles formed artificially from biological membranes may under certain conditions show a transient electrical potential.



Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erich Heinz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Medical CollegeCornell UniversityNew YorkUSA

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