Auto-immunity in Thyroid Disease

  • Robert Volpé
Part of the Monographs on Endocrinology book series (ENDOCRINOLOGY, volume 20)


This chapter will discuss the immunological aspects of two clinically disparate disorders of the thyroid, namely, Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (and its variants) (see Table 2.1). While the clinical expression of these two disorders may be markedly different, there are many genetic and pathogenetic elements which are similar if not common to them both, and indeed some workers (although not this author) consider that these two conditions are merely opposite ends of a spectrum of the same condition (Bastenie and Ermans 1972; Fisher and Beall 1976).


Migration Inhibition Factor Subacute Thyroiditis Thyroid Stimulate Immunoglobulin Thyroid Antigen Pretibial Myxoedema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aarli JA, Thunold S, Heimann P (1978) Thyroiditis in myaesthenia gravis. Acta Neurol Scand 58: 121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams DD, Kennedy TH (1971) Evidence to suggest that LATS protector stimulates the human thyroid gland. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 33: 47–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams DD, Purves HD (1956) Abnormal responses in the assay of thyrotrophin. Univ Otaga Med School Proc 34: 11–12Google Scholar
  4. Adams DD, Dirmikis S, Doniach D, El Kabir DJ, Hall R, Ibbertson HK, Irvine WJ, Kendall-Taylor P, Manley SW, Mehdi SQ, Munro DS, Purves HD, Smith BR, Stewart RDH (1975) Nomenclature of thyroid stimulating antibodies. Lancet 1: 1201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Adlkofer F, Schleusener H, Uher L, Ananos A (1973) Heterogenity of long-acting thyroid stimulating ( LATS) activity, thyroglobulin antibodies and thyroid microsomal antibodies. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 73: 483–488Google Scholar
  6. Alexander WD, Harden R McG, Shimmins J (1968) Emotion and non-specific infection as possible aetiological factors in Graves’ disease. Their relation to thyroid suppressibility. Lancet 2: 196–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Allison AC (1976) Self-tolerance and autoimmunity in the thyroid. N Engl J Med 295: 821–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Amino N, DeGroot LJ (1975) Insoluble particulate antigens in cell–mediated immunity of autoimmune thyroid disease. Metabolism 24: 45–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Amino N, Miyai K, Onishi T, Hashimoto T, Arai K, Ishibashi K, Kumahara Y (1976) Transient hypothyroidism after delivery in autoimmune thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42: 296–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Amino N, Miyai K, Kuro R, Tanizawa O, Azukizawa M, Takai S, Tanaka F, Nishi K, Kawashima M, Kumahara Y (1977 a) Transient post-partum hypothyroidism: fourteen cases with autoimmune thyroiditis. Ann Intern Med 87: 155–159Google Scholar
  11. Amino N, Miyai K, Yamamoto T, Kuro R, Tanaka F, Tanizawa O, Kumahara Y (1977 b) Transient recurrence of hyperthyroidism after delivery in Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 44: 130–136Google Scholar
  12. Amino N, Kuro R, Tanizawa F, Tanaka F, Hayashi C, Kotani K, Kwashima M, Miyai K, Kumahara Y (1978) Changes of serum anti-thyroid antibodies during and after pregnancy in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Clin Exp Immunol 31: 30–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Amino N, Mori H, Yabu Y, Kuro R, Yamada T, Hisa Y, Tanizawa O, Miyai (1980) Mechanisms of occurrence of transient post-partum hypothyroidism in autoimmune thyroiditis. In: Stockigt JR, Nagataki S (eds) Thyroid research VIII. Austral Acad Sci Canberra, pp 551–554Google Scholar
  14. Amkraut A, Solomon GF (1974) From the symbolic stimulus to the pathophysiologic response immune mechanisms. Int J Psychiatry Med 5: 541–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Aoki N, DeGroot LJ (1979) Lymphocyte blastogenic response to human thyroglobulin in Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and metastatic thyroid cancer. Clin Exp Immunol 38: 523–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Aoki N. Pinnamaneni KM, DeGroot LJ (1979) Studies on suppressor cell function in thyroid diseases. J. Clin Endocrinol Metab 48: 803–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Asamer H, Riccabona G, Holthaus N, Gabl F (1968) Immunohistologic findings in thyroid disease in an endemic goiter area. Arch Klin Med 215: 270–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bacon LD, Kite RH Jr, Rose NR (1973) Immunogenetic detection of B locus genotypes in chickens with autoimmune thyroiditis. Transplantation 16: 591–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Balázs CS, Stenszky V, Kozma L, Leövey A (1978) The possible influence of HLA-1, B8 antigens on the course of Graves’ disease. Biomedicine 29: 263–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Balázs CS, Stenszky V, Kozma L, Szerze P, Leövey A (1979 a) Connection between HLA B8 antigen and suppressor T cell activity in Graves’ disease. Transplant Proc 11: 1314Google Scholar
  21. Balázs CS, Leövey A, Borden L (1979 b) Decrease of concanavalin-A activated and short-livedsuppressor T cell function in thyrotoxicosis. Biomedicine 30: 143–147Google Scholar
  22. Balázs CS, Leövey A, Szabo M, Bako G (1980) Stimulating effect of triiodothyronine on cell-mediated immunity. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 17: 19–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bartels EC (1941) Twin examinations: heredity in Graves’ disease. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp 32–36Google Scholar
  24. Bartels EC, Irie M (1961) Thyroid function in patients with progressive exophthalmos; study of 117 cases requiring orbital decompression. In: Pitt-Rivers R (ed) Advances in thyroid research. Pergamon, New York, pp 163–170Google Scholar
  25. Bartrop RW, Luckhurst E, Lazarus L, Kiloh LG, Penny R (1977) Depressed lymphocyte function after bereavement. Lancet 1: 834–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bastenie PA, Ermans AM (1972) Thyroiditis and thyroid function: clinical, morphological and physiopathological studies. Pergamon, Oxford ( International series of monographs on pure and applied biology, modern trends in physiological sciences, Vol 36 )Google Scholar
  27. Bastenie PA, Neve P, Bonnyns M, Van Haelst L, Chailly M (1967) Clinical and pathological significance of asymptomatic atrophic thyroiditis; a condition of latent hypothyroidism. Lancet 1: 915–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bayer MF, Kriss JP (1979 a) Immunoradiometric assay for serum thyroglobulin: semiquantitative measurement of thyroglobulin in antithyroglobulin-positive sera. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 49: 557–564Google Scholar
  29. Bayer MF, Kriss JP (1979 b) A solid phase sandwich type radioimmunoassay for antithyroglobulin elimination of false positive results and semiquantitative measurement of antithyroglobulin in the presence of elevated thyroglobulin. J. Clin Endocrinol Metab 49: 565–571Google Scholar
  30. Beall GN, Kruger SR (1979) Antithyroglobulin ( ATG) production by peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48: 712–714Google Scholar
  31. Bech K, Madsen SN (1979) Thyroid adenylate cyclase stimulating immunoglobulin in thyroid diseases. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 11: 47–58Google Scholar
  32. Bech K, Nerup J, Larsen JH (1977a) Yersinia enterocolitica infection and thyroid diseases. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 84: 87–92Google Scholar
  33. Bech K, Clemmensen O, Larsen JH, Bendixen G (1977 b) Thyroid disease and Yersinia. Lancet 1: 1060–1061Google Scholar
  34. Bech K, Lumholtz B, Nerup J, Thomsen M, Platz P, Ryder LP, Svejgaard A, Siersbaek-Nielsen K, Hansen JM, Larsen JH (1977 c) HLA antigens in Graves’ disease. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 86: 510–516Google Scholar
  35. Bech K, Nerup J, Thomsen M, Platz P, Ryder LP, Svejgaard A, Siersbaek-Neilsen K, Molholm Hansen JE (1977 d) Subacute thyroiditis DeQervain: a disease associated with an HLA-B antigen. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 86: 504–509Google Scholar
  36. Beck JS (to be published) Pathology of Graves’ disease and the effect of treatment. Ann Coll Phys Surg CanadaGoogle Scholar
  37. Beierwaltes WH (1969) Iodine and lymphocytic thyroiditis. Bull All-India Inst Med Sci 3: 145–152Google Scholar
  38. Beierwaltes WH, Nishiyama RH (1968) Dog thyroiditis. Occurrence and similarity to Hashimoto’s struma. Endocrinology 83: 501–508Google Scholar
  39. Benoit FL, Greenspan FS (1967) Corticosteroid therapy for pretibial myxoedema, observations on the long-acting thyroid stimulator. Ann Intern Med 66: 711–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Blackett PR, Seely JR, Altmiller DH (1978) Neonatal thyrotoxicosis following maternal hypothyroidism. J Pediatr 92: 159–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Blizzard RM, Hung W, Chandler RW, Aceto T Jr, Kyle M, Winship T (1962) Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Clinical and laboratory response to prolonged cortisone therapy. N Engl J Med 267: 1015–1020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Bolk JH, Elte JWF, Bussemaker JK, Haak A, Van der Heide D (1979) Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins do not cause non-autonomous, autonomous or toxic multinodular goitres. Lancet 2: 61–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Bonnyns M, Cano P, Osterland CK, and McKenzie JM (1978) Immune reactions in patients with Graves’ disease. Am J Med 65: 971–977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Braley-Mullen H, Sharp GC, Kyriakos M, Jepsen P (1978) Cellular and genetic control of susceptibility to experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in guinea pigs. In: Rose NR, Bigazzi PE, Warner NL (eds) Genetic control of autoimmune disease. Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp 401–413Google Scholar
  45. Braverman LE (1978) Therapeutic considerations. Clin Endocrinol Metab 7: 221–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Braverman LE, Ingbar SH, Vagenakis AG, Adams L, Maloof F (1971) Enhanced susceptibility to iodide myxedema in patients with Hashimoto’s disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 32: 515–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Bremner WJ, Griep RJ (1976) Graves’ thyrotoxicosis following primary thyroid failure. JAMA 235: 1361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Brohee D, Delespesse G, Debisschop MJ, Bonnyns M (1979) Detection of circulating immune complexes in thyroid disease. Clin Exp Immunol 36: 379–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Brown DM, Lowman JT (1964) Thyrotoxicosis occurring in two patients on prolonged high doses of steroids. N Engl J Med 270: 278–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Brown RS, Jackson IMB, Pohl SL, Reichlin S (1978) Do thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins cause non-toxic and toxic multinodular goitres? Lancet 1: 904–906Google Scholar
  51. Brownlie BEW, Newton OAG, Singh SP (1975) Ophthalmopathy associated with primary hypothyroidism. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 79: 691–699Google Scholar
  52. Buerklin EM, Schimmel M, Utiger RD (1976) Pituitary-thyroid regulation in euthyroid patients with Graves’ disease previously treated with antithyroid drugs. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43: 419–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Burch PRJ (1963 a) A genetic theory of inflammatory polyarthritis. Lancet 2:636–637Google Scholar
  54. Burch PRJ (1963 b) A genetic theory of inflammatory polyarthritis. Lancet 2:836–837Google Scholar
  55. Burch PRJ (1966 a) Spontaneous auto-immunity: equation for age-specific prevalence and initiation rates. J Theor Biol 12:397–409Google Scholar
  56. Burch PRJ (1966 b) Age and sex distributions from some idiographic non-malignant conditions in man. Some possible implications for growth control and natural and radiation induced ageing. In: Lindop PJ, Sacher GA (eds) Radiation and ageing. Taylor & Francis, London, pp 117–155Google Scholar
  57. Burch PRJ (1968) An inquiry concerning growth, disease and ageing. The sex and age distribution of autoaggressive disease. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, pp 34–69Google Scholar
  58. Burch PRJ, Rowell NR (1963) Autoimmunity: aetiological aspects of chronic discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: some immunological complications. Lancet 2: 507–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Burke JS, Butler JJ, Fuller LM (1977) Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid. A clinical pathological study of 35 patients including ultrastructural observations. Cancer 39: 1587–1602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Calder EA, Penhale WJ, Barnes EW, Irvine WJ (1974 a) Evidence for circulating immune complexes in thyroid disease. Br Med J 2: 30–31Google Scholar
  61. Calder EA, Urbaniak SJ, Penhale WJ, Irvine WJ ( 1974 b) Characterization of human lymphoid cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity ( LDAC ). Clin Exp Immunol 18: 597–593Google Scholar
  62. Calder EA, Irvine WJ, Davidson NM, Wu F (1976) T, B and K cells in autoimmune thyroid disease. Clin Exp Immunol 25: 17–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Cano PO, Chertman MM, Jerry LM, and McKenzie JM (1976) Circulating immune complexes in Graves’ disease. Endocr Res Commun 3: 307–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Canonica G, Bagnasco M, Moretta L, Cocco R, Ferrini O, Giordano G (1981) Human T lymphocyte subpopulations in Hashimoto’s disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 52: 553–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Carayon P, Guibou TM, Lissitzsky S (1978) Thyrotropin receptor adenylate cyclase system in plasma membranes from normal and diseased human thyroid glands. J Endocrinol Invest 1: 321–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Carey C, Skosey C, Pinnamaneni KM, Barsano CP, DeGroot LJ (1980) Thyroid abnormalities in children of parents who have Graves’ disease — possible pre-Graves’ disease. Metabolism 29: 369–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Cathelineau G, Fribourg-Desi M (1974) Ophtalmopathie de type basedowien et hypothyroidie primitive. Nouv Presse Med 3 32: 1995–1998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Catz B, Perzik SL (1965) Subtotal vs. total surgical ablation of the thyroid, malignant exophthalmos and its relation to remnant thyroid. In: Cassano C, Andreoli M (eds) Current topics in thyroid research. Academic Press, New York, pp 1183–1199Google Scholar
  69. Chan SH, Yeo PPB, Lui, KF, Wee GB, Woo KT, Lim P, Cheah JS (1978) HLA and thyrotoxicosis ( Graves’ disease) in Chinese. Tissue Antigens 12: 109–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Chandler RW, Kyle MA, Hung W, Blizzard RM (1962) Experimentally induced autoimmunization disease of the thyroid. I. The failure of transplacental transfer of anti-thyroid antibodies to produce cretinism. Paediatrics 29: 961–967Google Scholar
  71. Chen H, Hoffman WH, Chang CH, Hart Z, Kaplan J (1978) Lymphocytic thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis, and Turner syndrome. Birth Defects 14/6A: 137–147Google Scholar
  72. Chertow BS, Fidler WJ, Fariss BL ( 1973 Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in monozygous twins. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 72: 18–24Google Scholar
  73. Cheung HS, Nicoloff JT, Kamiel MB, Spolter L, Nimni ME (1978) Stimulation of fibroblast biosynthetic activity by serum of patients with pretibial myxedema. J Invest Dermatol 71: 12–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Chopra IJ, Solomon DH, Chopra U, Yoshihara E, Terasaki PI, Smith F (1977) Abnormalities in thyroid function in relatives of patients with Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45: 45–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Christadoss P, Kong YCM, Elrehewy M, Rose NR, David GS (1978) Genetic control of T lymphocyte proliferative autoimmune response to thyroglobulin in mice. In: Rose NR, Bigazzi PE, Warner EL (eds) Genetic control of autoimmune disease. Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp 445–54Google Scholar
  76. Christy JH, Morse RS (1977) Hypothyroid Graves’ disease. Am J Med 62: 291–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Claman HN (1972) Corticosteroids and lymphoid cells. N Engl J Med 287: 388–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Clinton BA, Weigle WO (1972) Cellular events during the induction of experimental thyroiditis in the rabbit. J Exp Med 136: 1605–1615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Cole RK, Kite JH Jr, Witebsky E (1968) Hereditary autoimmune thyroiditis in the fowl. Science 160: 1357–1358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Cooper DS, Ridgway EC, Maloof F (1978) Unusual types of hyperthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol Metab 7: 199–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Cunliffe WJ, Hall R, Newell DJ, Stevenson CJ (1968) Vitiligo, thyroid disease and autoimmunity. Br J Dermatol 80: 135–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Cunningham JAK, Krai F (1959) Thyrotoxicosis in identical twins. NZ Med J 58: 600–603Google Scholar
  83. Dandona P, Marshall MJ, Bidey SP, Nathan A, Harvard CWH (1979) Successful treatment of exophthalmos and pretibial myxoedema with plasmapheresis. Br Med J 1: 374–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Davies TF, Yeo PPB, Evered DC, Clark F, Smith BR, Hall R (1977) Value of thyroid stimulating antibody determinations in predicting short-term thyrotoxic relapse in Graves’ disease. Lancet 1: 1181–1182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Dirmikis SM, Munro DS, Hiller EJ, Crawford MJ, Wynn EJ, Purcell M (1974) Placental transmission of LATS-protector. Lancet 2: 1579–1580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Dirmikis SM, Munro DS (1975) Placental transmission of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin. Br Med J 2: 665–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Dirmikis SM, Kendall-Taylor P, Munro DS (1976) The nature and significance of LATS-protector. In: Robbins J, Braverman LE (eds) Thyroid research. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 403–406Google Scholar
  88. Docter R, Bos G, Visser TJ, Hennemann G (1980) Thyrotrophin binding inhibiting immunoglobulins in Graves’ disease before, during and after therapy, and its relation to long-acting thyroid stimulator. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 12: 143–153Google Scholar
  89. Doniach D (1975) Humoral and genetic aspects of thyroid autoimmunity. Clin Endocrinol Metab 4: 267–285Google Scholar
  90. Doniach D, Florin-Christensen A (1975) Autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of endocrine exophthalmos. Clin Endocrinol Metab 4: 341–350Google Scholar
  91. Doniach D, Roitt IM, Taylor KB (1965) Autoimmunity in pernicious anemia and thyroiditis: a family study. Ann NY Acad Sci 124: 605–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Doniach D, Botazzo GF, Russell RCG (1979) Goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis ( Hashimoto’s thyroiditis ). Clin Endocrinol Metab 8: 63–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Dorfman SG, Cooperman MT, Nelson RL, Depuy H, Peake RL, Young RL (1977) Painless thyroiditis and transient hyperthyroidism without goiter. Ann Intern Med 86: 24–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Drachman DB (1978) Myaesthenia gravis. N Engl J Med 298: 136–142, 186–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Drexhage HA, Bottazzo GF, Bitemsky L, Chayen J, Doniach D (1980) Evidence for thyroid growth stimulating immunoglobulins in some goitrous thyroid diseases. Lancet 2: 281–292,62 nd Meeting, Endocrinol Soc, Washington, DC, June 18–20, 1980, Abstract 514Google Scholar
  96. Dunlap DB, McFarland KF, Lutcher CL (1974) Graves’ disease and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Am J Med Sci 268: 107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Dymling JF, Becker DV (1967) Occurrence of hyperthyroidism in patients receiving thyroid hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 27: 1487–1491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Edmonds M, Lamki L, Killinger DW, Volpe R (1973) Autoimmune thyroiditis, adrenalitis and cophoritis. Am J Med 54: 782–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ehrenfeld EN, Levy M (1972) Thyrotoxicosis in identical twins and in their mother. Isr J Med Sci 8: 620–622Google Scholar
  100. Elling P, Ranlov P, Bildsoe P (1966) A genetic approach to the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis — a clinical and serological study. Acta Med Scand 179: 527–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Endo K, Kasagi T, Konishi J, Ikekubo K, Okuno T, Takeda Y, Mori T, Torizuka K (1978) Detection and properties of TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulins in patients with Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 46: 734–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Etienne J, Kohn LD, Winand RJ (1976) Studies on the mechanism of experimental exophthalmos. In: Robbins J, Braverman LE (eds) Thyroid research. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 380–382Google Scholar
  103. Evans TC, Beierwaltes WH, Nishiyama RH (1969) Experimental canine Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Endocrinology 84: 641–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Faber J, Cohn D, Kirkegaard C, Christy M, Siersbaek-Nielsen K, Friis T, Nerup J (1979) Subclinical hypothyroidism in Addison’s disease. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 91: 674–679Google Scholar
  105. Fabris N (1973) Immunodepression in thyroid–deprived animals. Clin Immunol 15: 601–611Google Scholar
  106. Fagraeus A, Jonsson J (1970) Distribution of organ antigens over the surface of thyroid cells as examined by the immunofluorescence test. Immunology 18: 413–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Fagraeus A, Jonsson J, El Kabir DJ (1970) What is the antibody specificity of LATS ? J. Clin Endocrinol Metab 31: 445–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Fahey JL, Goodman H (1964) Antibody activity in six classes of human immunoglobulin. Science 143: 588–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Fakhri O, Hobbs JR (1972) Detection of antibodies which can cooperate with lymphocytes. Lancet 2: 403–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Farid NR, Bear JC (1981) The human major histocompatibility complex and endocrine disease. Endocrine Rev 2: 50–86Google Scholar
  111. Farid NR, Munro RE, Row VV, Volpe R (1973) Rosette inhibition test for the demonstration of thymus-dependent lymphocyte sensitization in Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. N Engl J Med 289: 1111–1117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Farid NR, Barnard JM, Marshall WH (1976) The association of HLA with autoimmune thyroid disease in Newfoundland. The influence of HLA homozygosity in Graves’ disease. Tissue Antigens 8: 181–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Farid NR, Newton RM, Noel EP, Barnard JM, Marshall WH (1978) The operation of immunological networks in Graves’ disease. Tissue Antigens 12: 205–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Farid NR, Sampson J, Noel EP, Barnard JM, Mandeville R, Larsen B, Marshall WH (1979) A study of human leukocyte D locus-related antigens in Graves’ disease. J Clin Invest 63: 108–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Farid NR, Larsen B, Payne R, Noel EP, Sampson L Immunogenetics of polyglandular autoimmune disease. 62nd Meeting, Endocrinol Soc, Washington, DC, June 18–20, 1980, Abstract 82 (to be published)Google Scholar
  116. Fatourechi V, McConahey WM, Woolner LB (1971) Hyperthyroidism associated with histologic Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Mayo Clin Proc 46: 682–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Feldt-Rasmussen U, Hyltoft Petersen P, Date J, Madsen CM (1980) Sequential changes in serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and its autoantibodies ( TgAb) following subtotal thyroidectomy of patients with preoperatively detectable TgAb. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 12: 29–38Google Scholar
  118. Fenzi GF, Hashizume K, Roudebush CB, DeGroot LJ (1979) Changes in thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin during antithyroid therapy. J. Clin Endocrinol Metab 48: 572–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Fenzi GF, Pinchera A, Bartalena I, Monzani F, Macchia E, Mammoli C, Baschieri L (1980) Thyroid plasma membrane antigens and TSH receptor. In: Stockigt JR, Nagataki S (eds) Thyroid research VIII. Austral Acad Sci Canberra, pp 703–706Google Scholar
  120. Ferrari E, Bossolo P, Vailati A (1974) The ACTH-secreting system in hyperthyroid patients: chronoregulation and dynamic behavior. Chronobiologia 1: 179–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Fialkow PJ, Zavala C, Nielsen R (1975) Thyroid autoimmunity: increased frequency in relatives of insulin-dependent diabetes patients. Ann Intern Med 83: 170–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Fisher D, Beall GN (1976) Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Pharmacol Ther. [C] 1: 445–458Google Scholar
  123. Flier JS, Bar RS, Muggeo M, Kahn CR, Roth J, Gorden P (1978) The evolving clinical course of patients with insulin receptor antibodies: spontaneous remission or receptor proliferation with hypoglycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 47: 985–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Flier JS, Kahn CR, Roth J (1979) Receptors, antireceptor antibodies and mechanisms of insulin resistance. N Engl J Med 300: 413–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Folb PI, Bank H (1974) Activated lymphocytes in the peripheral blood in acute hyperthyroidism ( Graves’ disease ). Isr J Med Sci 10: 785–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Folb PI, Bank H (1976) Evidence for an active immune response in acute hyperthyroidism ( Graves’ disease ). Am J Med Sci 272: 269–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Forrester JV, Sutherland GR, McDougall IR (1977) Dysthyroid ophthalmopathy: orbital evaluation with B-scan ultrasonography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45: 221–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Fragu P, Mariotti S, Lucero Y, DeGroot LJ (to be published) Indomethacin inhibited suppressor cells in thyroid disease. 62nd Meeting, Endocrinol Soc, Washington, DC, June 8–10, 1980 Abstract 14Google Scholar
  129. Friedman JM, Fialkow PJ (1978) The genetics of Graves’ disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 7: 47–65Google Scholar
  130. Fritz TE, Norris WP, Kretz ND (1970) Influence of lymphocytic thyroiditis on iodine metabolism in the beagle. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 134: 450–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Fujita K, Yamada N, Sanbe T, Yudo T, Tsuchiya K, Shimabukuru K, Ito K, Saito M (1970) Haemagglutination test using antigen from thyroid epithelial cells. Clin Pathol (Jap) 18: 213–217Google Scholar
  132. Furth ED, Becker DV, Ray BS, Kane JW (1962) Appearance of unilateral infiltrative exophthalmos of Graves’ disease after the successful treatment of the same process in the contralateral eye by apparently total surgical hypophysectomy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 22: 518–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Gallagher TF, Hellman L, Finkelstein J, Yoshida K, Weitzman ED, Roffwarg H, Fukushima DK (1972) Hyperthyroidism and Cortisol secretion in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 34: 919–927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Galluzzo A, Giordano C, Andronico F, Filardo C, Andronico G, Bompiano G (1980) Leukocyte migration test in subacute thyroiditis: hypothetical role of cell-mediated immunity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 1038–1041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Gavras I, Thomson JA (1972) Late thyrotoxicosis complicating autoimmune thyroiditis. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 69: 41–46Google Scholar
  136. Gharib H, Hodgson SF, Gastineau CF, Scholz PA, Smith LA (1972) Reversible hypothyroidism in Addison’s disease. Lancet 2: 734–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ginsberg J, Segal D, Ehrlich RM, Walfish PG (1978) Inappropriate triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine ( T4) radioimmunoassay levels secondary to circulating thyroid hormone autoantibodies. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 8: 133–139Google Scholar
  138. Glatstein E, McHardy-Young S, Brast N, Eltringham JR, Kriss JP (1971) Alterations in serum thyrotropin ( TSH) and thyroid function following radiotherapy in patients with malignant lymphoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 32: 833–841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Glover EL, Rueber MD (1968) Chronic thyroiditis in buffalo strain rats ingesting methylcholanthrene. Arch Pathol 86: 542–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Gluck FB, Nusynowitz ML, Plymate S (1975) Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, thyrotoxicrosis and low radioactive iodine uptake; report of four cases. N Engl J Med 293: 624–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Goolden AWG, Davidson M, Hoffenberg R (1971) Myxoedema preceding hyperthyroidism. Lancet 2: 268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Gordin A, Lamberg BA (1975) Natural course of symptomless autoimmune thyroiditis.Lancet 2: 1234–1238Google Scholar
  143. Gordin A, Maenpaa J, Makinen T, Totterman TH, Tiilikainen A (1979) Immunological and genetic markers in a family with Hashimoto’s disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 11: 425–435Google Scholar
  144. Gorman GA (1978) Endocrine ophthalmopathy. Clin Endocrinol Metab 7: 67–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Goust JM, Moulias R, Reinert P, Devillechabrolle A, Berthaux P (1972) L’immunité cellulaire envers les antigens d’organe au cours des affections endocriniennes étude par le test de migration des leucocytes. Rev Fr Endocrinol Clin 13: 401–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Grabar P (1974) “Self” and “not self” in immunology. Lancet 1:1320–1322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Graves RJ (1835) Clinical lectures. London Med Surg 7: 516–517Google Scholar
  148. Gray RS, Borsey DQ, Seth J, Herd R, Brown NS, Clarke BF (1980) Prevalence of subclinical thyroid failure in insulin-dependent diabetes. J. Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 1034–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Greaves M, Janossy G, Doenhoff M (1974) Selective triggering of human T and B lymphocytes in vitro by polyclonal mitogens. J Exp Med 140: 1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Greer M (1980) Antithyroid drugs in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis. In: Oppenheimer JH (ed) Thyroid today, vol 3, no 1. Travenol, Deerfield, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  151. Grinblatt J, Shohat B, Lewitus Z, Joshua H (1979) Quantitative and functional assessment of peripheral T lymphocytes in thyroid disease. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 90: 52–61Google Scholar
  152. Grob D (1958) Myaesthenia gravis: current status of pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management. J Chronic Dis 8: 536–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Grumet FC, Payne RO, Konishi J, Kriss JP (1974) HL-A antigens as markers for disease susceptibility and autoimmunity in Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 39: 1115–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Grumet FC, Konishi J, Payne RO, Kriss, JP (1976) Association in Japanese of Graves’ disease with the HLA specificity W5. In: Robbins J, Braverman LE (eds) Thyroid research. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 376–379Google Scholar
  155. Hadden DR, McDevitt DG (1974) Environmental stress and thyrotoxicosis: absence of association. Lancet 2: 577–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Hahn HB, Hayles AB, Woolner LB (1965) Lymphocytic thyroiditis in children. J Pediatr 66: 73–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Hall ND (1978) Leukocyte migration inhibition with IgG-IgG complexes and rabbit IgG fragments in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Immunol 34: 219–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Hall R (1980) Thyroid stimulators. In: Cumming IA, Funden JW, Mendelsohn FAO (eds) Endocrinology. Austral Acad Sci Canberra; Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, New York, pp 9–12Google Scholar
  159. Hall R, Stanbury JB (1967) Family studies of autoimmune thyroiditis. Clin Exp Immunol [Suppl] 2: 719–725Google Scholar
  160. Hall R, Owen SG, Smart GA (1960) Evidence for genetic predisposition to formation of thyroid antibodies. Lancet 2: 187–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Hall R, Doniach D, Kirkham K, El Kabir D (1970) Ophthalmic Graves’ disease: diagnosis and pathogenesis. Lancet 1: 375–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Hall R, Smith BR, Mukhtar ED (1975) Thyroid stimulators in health and disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 4: 213–230Google Scholar
  163. Hallengren B, Forsgren A, Melander A (1980) Immunologic effects of methimazole and propylthiouracil in vitro. In: Stockigt JR, Nagataki S (eds) Thyroid research VIII. Austral Acad Sei Canberra, pp 625–628Google Scholar
  164. Hart IR, McKenzie JM (1971) Comparison of the effects of thyrotrophin and long acting thyroid stimulator on guinea pig adipose tissue. Endocrinology 88: 26–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Harvald B, Hauge M (1956) A catamnestic investigation of Danish twins: a preliminary report. Dan Med Bull 3: 150–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Hashimoto H (1912) Zur Kenntnis der lymphomatosen Veränderung der Schilddrüse (Struma lymphomatosa). Arch Klin Chir 97: 219–248Google Scholar
  167. Hashizume K, Roudebush C, Fenzi G, DeGroot LJ (1977) The effect of antithyroid therapy on thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) in Graves’ disease. 53rd Meeting, Am Thyroid Assoc, Cleveland, Ohio, September 7–10, 1980, Abstract p. T-7 (to be published)Google Scholar
  168. Hassan THA, Greig WR, Boyle JA, Boyle IT, Wallace TJ (1966) Toxic diffuse goitre in monozygotic twins. Lancet 2: 306–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Hay FC, Torrigiani G (1973) The distribution of antithyroglobulin antibodies in the immunoglobulin G subclasses. Clin Exp Immunol 15: 517–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Hazard JB (1955) Thyroiditis: a review. Am J Clin Pathol 25:289–298, 399–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Headington JT, Tantajumroom T (1967) Surgical thyroid disease in Northern Thailand; a study in geographic pathology. Arch Surg 95: 157–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Hearn MTW, Stanton P, Adams DD, Prestidge RL (1980) The application of several new methods for the isolation of glycoprotein antigens involved in thyroid autoimmunity. 6th Internat Congr Endocrinol, Melbourne, Australia, February 10–16, 1980, Abstract 531 (to be published)Google Scholar
  173. Hedley AJ, Ross IP, Beck JS, Donald D, Albert-Recht F, Michie W, Crooks J (1971) Recurrent thyrotoxicosis after subtotal thyroidectomy. Br Med J 4: 258–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Helmke J, Federlin K (1974) Humorale Antikörper und cellulare Immunmechanismen bei verschiedenen Schilddrüsenerkrankungen sowie ihre Beziehungen zum klinischen Erscheinungsbild. Klin Wochenschr 52: 578–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Hershman JM, Pittman JA (1971) Utility of the radioimmunoassay of serum thyrotrophin in man. Ann Intern Med 74: 481–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Hochstein MA, Nair V, Nevins M (1977) Hypothyroidism followed by hyperthyroidism: occurrence in a patient with elevated antithyroid antibody titer. JAMA 237: 2222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Hopf U, Hutteroth TH, Meyer zum Büschenfelde KH (1978) Detection of circulating immune complexes in patients with Graves’ disease (Abstract 34). Ann Endocrinol (Paris) t 39: 20AGoogle Scholar
  178. How J, Bewsher PD (1980) Autoimmune thyroid disease and the polymyalgia rheumatic-giant cell arteritis syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 12: 209–210Google Scholar
  179. How J, Khir ASM, Bewsher PD (1980) Some observations on the natural history of autoimmune ( Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis. Scott Med J 25: 80Google Scholar
  180. Hsu CCS, Chen Y, Patterson R (1976) Peripheral blood B-lymphocyte abnormalities associated with hyperthyroidism of Graves’ disease. Clin Exp Immunol 26: 431–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Hung W, Chandra R, August GP, Altman PR (1973) Clinical, laboratory and histologic observations in euthyroid children and adolescents with goiters. J Pediatr 82: 10–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Inada M, Nishikawa M, Naito K, Oishi M, Kurata S, Imura H (1980 a) Triiodothyronine-binding immunoglobulin in a patient with Graves’ disease and its effect on metabolism and radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine. Am J Med 68: 787–792Google Scholar
  183. Inada M, Nishikawa M, Naito K, Ishii H, Tanaka K, Imura H ( 1980 b) Correlation of the histological abnormalities of the thyroid with the stage of transient thyrotoxicosis associated with painless thyroiditis. In: Stockigt JR, Nagataki S (eds) Thyroid research VIII. Austral Acad Sci Canberra, pp 563–566Google Scholar
  184. Irvine WJ (1975) Autoimmunity in endocrine disease. Clin Endocrinol Metab 4: 227–499Google Scholar
  185. Irvine WJ (1978) The immunology and genetics of autoimmune endocrine disease. In: Rose NR, Bigazzi PE, Warner NL (eds) Genetic control of autoimmune disease. Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp 77–100Google Scholar
  186. Irvine WJ (1980) Polyglandular autoimmune diseases. In: Cumming IA, Funden JW, Mendelsohn FAO (eds) Endocrinology. Austral Acad Sci Canberra; Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, New York pp 100–105Google Scholar
  187. Irvine WJ, MacGregor AG, Stuart AE, Hall GH (1961) Hashimoto’s disease in uniovular twins. Lancet 2: 850–853Google Scholar
  188. Irvine WJ, Gray RS, Morris PJ, Ting A (1977 a) Correlation of HLA and thyroid antibodies with the clinical course of thyrotoxicosis treated with antithyroid drugs. Lancet 2: 898–900Google Scholar
  189. Irvine WJ, Wu FCW, Urbaniak SJ, Toolis F ( 1977 b) Peripheral blood leucocytes in thyrotoxicosis ( Graves’ disease) as studied by conventional light microscopy. Clin Exp Immunol 27: 216–221Google Scholar
  190. Ito S, Tamura T, Nishikawa M (1968) Effects of desiscated thyroid, prednisolone and chloroquine on goiter and antibody titer in chronic thyroiditis. Metabolism 17: 317–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Iverson K (1948) Temporary rise in the frequency of thyrotoxicosis in Denmark, 1941–1945. Rosenhilde & Bagger, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  192. Jackson R, Rosenberg C, Kleinmann R, Vagenakis AG, Braverman LE (1979) Ophthalmopathy after neck irradiation therapy for Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer Treat Rep 63: 1392–1395Google Scholar
  193. James KW (1971) Myxodema preceding hyperthyroidism. Lancet 2: 156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Jayson MIV, Doniach D, Benhamou-Glynn N, Roitt IM, El Kabir DJ (1967) Thyrotoxicosis and Hashimoto goitre in a pair of monozygotic twins with serum long acting thyroid stimulator. Lancet 2: 15–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Jeevanram RK, Narkar AA, Shah DH, Ganatra RD (1977) Effect of thyroxine on lymphocyte stimulation. Indian J Cancer 14: 361–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Jepson PL, Kyriakos M, Sharp GD, Braley-Muller H (1979) Effect of neonatal thyroidectomy on experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in guinea pigs. Cell Immunol 45: 356–363Google Scholar
  197. Joasoo A, Robertson P, Murray IPC (1975) Viral antibodies in thyrotoxicosis. Lancet 2: 125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Jonsson J, Fagraeus A (1969) On the mechanism of the ring zone effect obtained with the mixed haemadsorption technique: studies with human antithyroid sera reacting with thyroid monolayer culture. Immunology 17: 387–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Jordan SC, Buckingham B, Sakai R, Olson D (1981) Studies of immune complex glomerulonephritis mediated by human thyroglobulin. New Engl J Med 304: 1212–1215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Kahn LD, Dale J (1973) Virus-like particles in Hashimoto’s disease and a variety of other tissues. Lab Invest 29: 350–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Kalderon AE, Bogaars HA (1977) Immune complex deposits in Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Am J Med 63: 729–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Katz DH, Benacerraf B (1976) The Role of products of the histocompatibility gene complex in immune responses. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  203. Kawa A, Nakamura S, Nakazawa M, Sakaguchi S, Kawabata T, Maeda Y, Kanehisa T (1978) HLA Bw35 and B5 in Japanese patients with Graves’ disease. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 86: 754–757Google Scholar
  204. Kendall-Taylor P (1975) LATS and human specific thyroid stimulator; their relation to Graves’ disease. Clin Endocrinol Metab 4: 319–339Google Scholar
  205. Kenny FM, Iturzaeta N, Preeyasombat C, Taylor FH, Migeon CJ (1967) Cortisol production rate. VII. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in infants and children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 27: 1616–1622Google Scholar
  206. Kidd A, Silverberg J, Sugenoya A, Row VV, Volpe R (1978) Attempted experimental production of Graves’ disease (Abstract 40). Ann Endocrinol (Paris) t 38: 23AGoogle Scholar
  207. Kidd A, Okita N, Row VV, Volpe R (1980) Immunologic aspects of Graves’ and Hashimoto’s diseases. Metabolism 29: 80–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Kingery FAJ (1965) Myxedema in hyperthyroidism. JAMA 194: 663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Kishihara M, Nakao Y, Baba Y, Matsukura S, Kuma K, Fujita T (1979) Interaction between thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins and thyrotropin receptors in fat cell membrane. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 49: 706–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Klein J (1975) Biology of the mouse histocompatibility-2 complex: principles of immunogenetics applied to a single system. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  211. Knight A, Adams DD (1980) Lack of allotypic variation in the autoantigen for the thyroid stimulating antibodies. 6th Internat Congr Endocrinol, Melbourne, Australia, February 10–16, 1980, Abstract 536 (to be published)Google Scholar
  212. Knox AJS, von Westarp C, Row VV, Volpe R ( 1976 a) Demonstration of the production of human thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins (HTSI) by Graves’ lymphocytes cultured in vitro with phytohaemagglutinin ( PHA ). Metabolism 25: 1217–1223Google Scholar
  213. Knox WJS, von Westarp C, Row VV, Volpe R ( 1976 b) Thyroid antigen stimulates lymphocytes from patients with Graves’ disease to produce thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin ( TSI ). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43: 330–337Google Scholar
  214. Kobayasi T, Danielsen L, Asboe-Hensen G (1976) Ultrastructure of localized myxoedema. Acta Derm Venerol (Stockh) 56: 173–185Google Scholar
  215. Kohn LD, Winand RJ (1971) Relationship of thyrotrophin to exophthalmos-producing substance. Formation of an exophthalmos-producing substance by pepsin digestion of pituitary glycoprotein containing both thyrotropic and exophthalmogenic activity. J Biol Chem 246: 6570–6575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Kojima A, Tanaka-Kojima Y, Sakakura T, Nishizuka Y (1976 a) Spontaneous development of autoimmune thyroiditis in neonatally thymectomized mice. Lab Invest 34: 550–557Google Scholar
  217. Kojima A, Tanaka-Kojima Y, Sakakura T, Nishizuka Y (1976 b) Prevention of post-thymectomy autoimmune thyroiditis in mice. Lab Invest 34: 601–605Google Scholar
  218. Kolsch E, Heuer J (1979) Tolerance and autoimmunity — an introductory survey. In: Klein E, Hoster FA (eds) Autoimmunity in thyroid diseases. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  219. Komaromi I (1965) The effect of thyroxine derivatives on oxygen consumption and adrenal weight in the rat. Acta Physiol Acad Sci Hung 27: 213–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Kong YCM, David SC, Giraldo AA, Elrehewy M, Rose NR (1978) Fine structure of genetic control of autoimmune response to mouse thyroglobulin. In: Rose NR, Bigazzi PE, Warner NL (eds) Genetic control of autoimmune disease. Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp 433–444Google Scholar
  221. Konishi J, Herman MM, Kriss JP (1974) Binding of thyroglobulin and thyroglobulin-antihyroglobulin immune complex to extraocular muscle membrane. Endocrinology 95: 434–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Konishi J, Kasagi K, Endo K, Mori T, Torizuka K, Yamada Y, Nohara Y, Matsuura N, Kajiama H (1980) TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulins in Hashimoto’s disease and neonatal transient hypothyroidism. In: Stockigt JR, Nagataki S (eds) Thyroid research VIII. Austral Acad Sci Canberra, pp 555–558Google Scholar
  223. Kotkes P, Pick E (1975) Studies of the inhibition of macrophage migration induced by soluble antigen-antibody complexes. Clin Exp Immunol 19: 105–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Kourides IA, Weintraub BD, Ridgway EC, Maloof F (1975) Pituitary secretion of free alpha and beta subunits of human thyrotropin in patients with thyroid disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 40: 872–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Kowalczyk D, Zembala M (1978) Migration inhibition of T lymphocytes from human peripheral blood by specific antigen and lymphokines. Clin Exp Immunol 32: 333–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Kriss JP (1968) Inactivation of long acting thyroid stimulator (LATS) by anti-kappa and anti-lambda antisera. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 28: 1440–1444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Kriss JP (1970) Radioisotopic thyroidolymphography in patients which Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 31: 315–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Kriss JP, Mehdi SQ (1979) Cell-mediated lysis of lipid vesicles containing eye muscle protein. Implications regarding pathogenesis of Graves’ opthalmopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 76: 2003–2007Google Scholar
  229. Kriss JP, Pleshakov V, Chien JR (1964) Isolation and identification of the long acting thyroid stimulator and its relation to hyperthyroidism and circumscribed pretibial myxoedema. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 24: 1005–1028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Kriss JP, Pleshakov V, Rosenblum AL, Holderness M, Sharp G, Utiger R (1967) Studies on the pathogenesis of the ophthalmopathy of Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 27: 582–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Kroll AJ, Kuwabara T (1966) Dysthyroid ocular myopathy. Anatomy, histology and electronmicros-copy. Arch Ophthalmol 76: 244–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Kuzuya N, Chiu SC, Ikeda H, Uchimura H, Ito K, Nagataki S (1979) Correlation between thyroid stimulators and 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine suppressibility in patients during treatment for hyperthyroidism with thionamide drugs. Comparison of assays by thyroid-stimulating and thyrotropin-displacement activities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48: 706–711Google Scholar
  233. Lamberg BA (1964) Cushing’s syndrome co-existing with hyperthyroidism. Report of a case and some metabolic observations. Acta Med Scand [Suppl 412] 175: 159–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Lamberg BA (1979) Aetiology of hypothyroidism. Clin Endocrinol Metab 8: 3–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Lamki L, Row VV, Volpe R (1973) Cell-mediated immunity in Graves’ disease and in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis as shown by the demonstration of migration inhibition factor ( MIF ). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 36: 358–364Google Scholar
  236. Laryea E, Row VV, Volpe R (1973) The effect of blood leukocytes from patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis on human thyroid cells in monolayer culture. Clin Endocrinol (Oxi) 2: 23–35Google Scholar
  237. Lee G, Grollman EF, Aloj SM, Kohn LD, Winand RJ (1977) Abnormal adenylate cyclase activity and altered membrane gangliosides in thyroid cells from patients with Graves’ disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 77: 139–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Lehmann W (1964) Zwillings- und Familienuntersuchungen zur Erbpathologie der Hyperthyreose. In: Becker PE (ed) Humangenetik: Ein kurzes Handbuch in fünf Bänden, volume 3, part 1. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 182–223Google Scholar
  239. Levey GS (1979) The adrenergic nervous system in hyperthyroidism: therapeutic role of beta adrenergic blocking drugs. In: Hershman JM, Bray GA (eds) The thyroid, physiology and treatment of disease. Pergamon, New York (International encyclopaedia of pharmacology and therapeutics, sect 101, pp 193–208 )Google Scholar
  240. Liddle GW, Heyssel RM, McKenzie JM (1965) Graves’ disease without hyperthyroidism. Am J Med 39: 845–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Lidz R, Cohn GL (1971) Emotional factors. In: Werner SC, Ingbar SH (eds) The thyroid, 3rd ed. Harper & Row, New York, pp 511–514Google Scholar
  242. Ling SM, Kaplan SA, Weitzman JJ, Reed GB, Costin G, Landing BH (1969) Euthyroid goiters in children: correlation of needle biopsy with other clinical and laboratory findings in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and simple goiter. Pediatrics 44: 695–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Loeb PB, Drash AL, Kenny FM (1973) Prevalence of low titer and “negative” antithyroglobulin antibodies in biopsy-proved juvenile Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Pediatr 82: 17–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Lowenstein JM (1961) Hyperthyroidism in identical twins: report of cases, one treated by surgery, the other by I131. JAMA 176: 377–378Google Scholar
  245. Ludwig H, Schernthaner G, Richter E, Zambelis N, Wick G (1978) Thyroglobulin binding cells–a diagnostic marker for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Acta Endocrinol [Suppl 215] (Copenh) 87 78–79Google Scholar
  246. Lundell G, Jonsson J (1973) Thyroid antibodies and hypothyroidism in 131I therapy for hyper-thyroidism. Acta Radiol (Stockh) 12: 443–453Google Scholar
  247. Madsen SN, Bech K (1979) TSH and thyroid stimulating antibodies ( TSAb) activate thyroid adenylate cyclase through different pathways. Acta Med Scand [Suppl] 624: 35–42Google Scholar
  248. Major PW, Munro DS (1962) Observations on the stimulation of thyroid function in mice by the injection of serum from normal subjects and from patients with thyroid disorders. Clin Sci 23: 463–475Google Scholar
  249. Makinen T, Wagar G, Apter L, Von Willebrand E, Pekonen F (1978) Evidence that the TSH receptor acts as a mitogenic antigen in Graves’ disease. Nature 275: 314–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Malone JF, Cullen MJ (1976) Two mechanisms for hypothyroidism after 131I therapy. Lancet 2: 73–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Marchant B, Lees JFH, Alexander WD (1979) Antithyroid drugs. In: Hershman JM, Bray GA (eds) The thyroid, physiology and treatment of disease. Pergamon, New York (International encyclopaedia of pharmacology and therapeutics, sect 101, pp 209–252 )Google Scholar
  252. Mariotti S, DeGroot LJ, Scarborough, D, Medof ME (1979) Study of circulating immune complexes in thyroid diseases: comparison of the Raji cell radioimmunoassay and specific thyroglobulin-antithyroglobulin radioassay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 49: 679–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Martinez-Lavin M, Vaghan JH, Tan EM (1979) Autoantibodies and the spectrum of Sjogren’s syndrome. Ann Intern Med 91: 185–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Mather BA, Roberts DF, Scanion MF, Mukhtar ED, Davies TF, Smith BR, Hall R (1980) HLA antigens and thyroid autoantibodies in patients with Graves’ disease and their first-degree relatives. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 12: 155–163Google Scholar
  255. Matsui Y, Beall GN, Chopra IJ, Solomon DH, Kruger S, Beall M (1977) Assay for antigen-stimulated lymphocyte-derived migration enhancement and inhibition factors from patients with thyroid disease and their relatives. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 86: 733–741Google Scholar
  256. Maynard-Smith J, Maynard-Smith S (1963 a) A genetic theory of inflammatory polyarthritis. Lancet 2: 357–359Google Scholar
  257. Maynard-Smith S, Maynard-Smith J (1963 b) A genetic theory of inflammatory polyarthritis. Lancet 2: 738Google Scholar
  258. McBurney EI (1979) Vitiligo: clinical picture and pathogenesis. Arch Intern Med 139: 1295–1297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. McConahey WM, Keating FR Jr, Butt HR, Owen CA Jr (1961) Comparison of certain laboratory tests in the diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 21: 879–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. McDougall IR, Kriss JP (1979) Management of the eye manifestations of thyroid disease. In: Hershman JM, Bray GA (eds) The thyroid, physiology and treatment of disease. Pergamon, New York (Internat encyclopaed pharmacol therapeut, sect 101, pp 309–328Google Scholar
  261. McDougall IR, Grieg WR, Gray WH, Smith JFB (1971) Thyrotoxicosis developing during cyclophosphamide therapy. Br Med J 4: 275–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. McEachern D, Parnell JL (1948) Relationship of hyperthyroidism to myaesthenia gravis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 8: 842–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. McGregor A, McLachlan S, Clark F, Rees Smith B, Hall R (1979 a) Thyroglobulin and microsomal autoantibody production by cultures of Hashimoto peripheral blood lymphocytes. Immunology 36: 81–85Google Scholar
  264. McGregor AM, McLachlan SM, Rees Smith B, Hall R (1979 b) Effect of irradiation on thyroid autoantibody production. Lancet 2: 442–444Google Scholar
  265. McGregor AM, Petersen MM, Capiferri R, Evered DC, Rees Smith B, Hall R (1979 c) Effects of radioiodine on thyrotrophin binding inhibiting immunoglobulins in Graves’ disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 11: 437–444Google Scholar
  266. McGregor AM, McLachlan SM, Brook EP, Rees Smith B, Hall R ( 1980 a) The influence of methimazole on the thyroidal autoimmune response in vitro. In: Stockigt JR, Nagataki S (eds) Thyroid research VIII. Austral Acad Sci Canberra, pp 629–632Google Scholar
  267. McGregor AM, Dewar PJ, Petersen MM, Miller M, Rees Smith B, Hall R (1980 b) Prediction of relapse in hyperthyroid Graves’ disease. Lancet 2: 1101–1103Google Scholar
  268. McKenzie JM (1960) Further evidence for a thyroid activator in hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 20: 380–388Google Scholar
  269. McKenzie JM (1968) Humoral factors in the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease. Physiol Rev 48: 252–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. McKenzie JM, Gordon J (1965) The origin of the long-acting thyroid stimulator. In: Cassano C, Andreoli M (eds) Current topics in thyroid research. Academic Press, New York, pp 445–454Google Scholar
  271. McKenzie JM, Zakarija M ( 1976 a) The role of the immune system in Graves’ disease. In: James VHT (ed) Proc Vth Internat Congr, Endocrinol, vol II. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 474–478Google Scholar
  272. McKenzie JM, Zakarija M (1976 b) A reconsideration of the thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin as the cause of hyperthyroidism in Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42: 778–784Google Scholar
  273. McKenzie JM, Zakarija M (1977) LATS in Graves’ disease. Recent Prog Horm Res 33: 29–57Google Scholar
  274. McKenzie JM, Zakarija M (1978) The pathogenesis of neonatal Graves’ disease. J Endocrinol Invest 2: 183–189Google Scholar
  275. McKenzie JM, Zakarija M (1979) Factors and concepts in autoimmune stimulation of the thyroid. In: Klein E, Hörster FA (eds) Autoimmunity in thyroid disease. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 107–115Google Scholar
  276. McKenzie JM, Zakarija M, Sato A (1978) Humoral immunity in Graves’ disease. Clin Endocrinol Metab 7: 31–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. McLachlan SM, Rees Smith B, Petersen VB, Davies TF, Hall R (1977) Thyroid-stimulating autoantibody production in vitro. Nature 270: 447–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. McLachlan SM, McGregor A, Rees Smith B, Hall R (1979) Thyroid autoantibody synthesis by Hashimoto thyroid lymphocytes. Lancet 1: 162–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. McLachlan SM, Wee SL, McGregor AM, Rees Smith B, Hall R (1980) In vitro studies on the control of thyroid autoantibody synthesis. J Clin Lab Immunol 3: 15–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. McLarty DG, Brownlie BEW, Alexander WD, Papapetrou PD, Horton P (1973) Remission of thyrotoxicosis during treatment with propranolol. Br Med J 2: 332–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. McMaster PRB, Lerner EM (1967) The transfer of allergic thyroiditis in histocompatible guinea pigs by lymph node cells. J Immunol 99: 208–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. McMichael A, Sazuki R, Payne RO, Grumet FC, McDevitt H, Kriss J (1975) An HLA associated LD antigen in patients with Graves’ disease. In: Dausset J, Svejgaard A (eds) Histocompatibility testing. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp 769–772Google Scholar
  283. Michie W, Gunn A (1966) The thyroid, the thymus and autoimmunity. Br J Clin Pract 20: 9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Michie W, Pegg CAS, Bewsher PD (1972) Prediction of hypothyroidism after partial thyroidectomy for thyrotoxicosis. Br Med J 1: 13–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Milgrom F, Witebsky E (1962) Autoantibodies and autoimmune diseases. JAMA 181: 706–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Miller K, MacLean D, Brown R (1979) Suppressor cell function in autoimmune thyroid disease. 61st Annual Meeting, Endocrinol Soc, June 13–14, 1979, Anaheim, California, Abstract 494 (to be published)Google Scholar
  287. Millikan CH, Haines SF (1953) Thyroid gland in relation to neuromuscular disease. Arch Intern Med 92: 5–39Google Scholar
  288. Miyai K, Fukuchi M, Kumahara Y, Abe H (1967) LATS production by lymphocyte culture in patients with Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 27: 855–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Moens H, Farid NR (1978) Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is associated with HLA-DRw3. N Engl J Med 299: 133–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Moens H, Barnard JM, Bear J, Farid NR (1979) The association of HLA B8 with atrophic thyroiditis. Tissue Antigens 13: 342–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Möller G (1978) Role of macrophages in the immune response. Immunol Rev 30: 1–255Google Scholar
  292. Monroe RT (1935) Chronic arthritis in hyperthyroidism and myxedema. N Engl J Med 212: 1074–1077Google Scholar
  293. Mori T, Kriss JP (1971) Measurements by competitive binding radioassay of serum anti-microsomal and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies in Graves’ disease and other thyroid disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 33: 688–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Mori H, Amino N, Iwatani Y, Kabutomori O, Asari S, Motoi S, Miyai K, Kumahara Y (1980) Increase of peripheral B lymphocytes in Graves’ disease. Clin Exp Immunol 41: 33–40Google Scholar
  295. Mornex R, Fournier G, Berthezene F (1975) Ophthalmic Graves’ disease. Mod Probl Ophthalmol 14: 426–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Moulias R, Goust JM, Devillechabrolle A, Buffet C, Muller-Berat CN (1970). Le test de migration des leucocytes du sang périphérique (TML) un nouveau test d’hypersensibilité retardée “in vitro” chez l’homme. II. Utilisation dans les affections autoimmunes humaines. Résultats préliminaires et interprétation. Presse Med 78: 2315–2318Google Scholar
  297. Mujtaba Q, Burrow GN (1975) Treatment of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy with propylthiouracil and methimazole. Obstet Gynecol 46: 282–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Mukhtar ED, Smith BR, Pyle GA, Hall R, Vice R (1975) Relationship of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins to thyroid function and effects of surgery, radioiodine and antithyroid drugs. Lancet 1: 713–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Mulaisho C, Abdou NI, Utiger RD (1975) Lack of T-cell immune abnormalities in peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with Graves’ disease or hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41: 266–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Mullin BR, Levinson RE, Friedman A, Henson DE, Winand RJ, Cohn LD (1977) Delayed hypersensitivity in Graves’ disease and exophthalmos: identification of thyroglobulin in normal human orbital muscle. Endocrinology 100: 351–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Munck A, Crabtree GR, Smith KA (1979) Glucocorticoid receptors and actions in rat thymocytes and immunologically stimulated human peripheral lymphocytes. In: Baxter JD, Rousseau GG (eds) Glucocorticoid hormone action. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Monographs on endocrinology, vol 12, pp 341–355 )Google Scholar
  302. Munro RE, Lamki L, Row VV, Volpé R (1973) Cell-mediated immunity in the exophthalmos of Graves’ disease as demonstrated by the migration inhibition factor ( MIF) test. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37: 286–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Nagataki S (1979) Iodine induced goiter: effects of high iodine intake on thyroid function. In: Hershman JM, Bray GA (eds) The thyroid, physiology and treatment of disease. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 453–464Google Scholar
  304. Nakamura RM, Weigle WO (1967) Passive transfer of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis from donor rabbits injected with soluble thyroglobulin without adjuvant. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 32: 506–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Neff FC (1932) Exophthalmic goiter in identical twin girls. J Pediatr 1: 239–243Google Scholar
  306. Nikolai TF (1979) Lymphocytic thyroiditis with spontaneously resolving hyperthyroidism. In: Oppenheimer JH (ed) Thyroid today, vol 2, no 5. Travenol, Deerfield pp 1–51Google Scholar
  307. Nikolai TF, Brosseau J, Kettrick MA, Roberts R, Beltaos E (1980) Lymphocytic thyroiditis with spontaneously resolving hyperthyroidism (silent thyroiditis).). Arch Intern Med 140: 478–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Nofal MM, Beierwaltes WH, Patuo ME (1966) Treatment of hyperthyroidism with sodium iodide I131; a 16 year experience. JAMA 197: 605–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Noguchi S (1978) Autoantibodies to thyroid plasma membrane. 6th Asia and Oceania Congr Endocrinol, Singapore, January 25–27, 1978, Abstract 213 (to be published)Google Scholar
  310. Nyulassy S, Hnilica P, Bue M, Buman M, Hirschova V, Stefanovic J (1977) Subacute (deQuervain’s) thyroiditis: association with HLA-Bw35 antigen and abnormalities of the complement system, immunoglobulins and other serum proteins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45: 270–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Ochi Y, DeGroot LJ (1969) Vitiligo in Graves’ disease. Ann Intern Med 71: 935–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. O’Donnell J, Trokoudes K, Silverberg J, Row VV, Volpé R (1978) Thyrotropin displacement activity ( TDA) of serum immunoglobulins from patients with Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 46: 770–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Okamura K, Inoue K, Omae T (1978) A case of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with thyroid immunological abnormality manifested after habitual ingestion of seaweed. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 88: 703–712Google Scholar
  314. Okita N, Kidd A, Row VV, Volpé R (1980 a) Sensitization of T lymphocytes in Graves’ and Hashimoto’s diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 51: 316–320Google Scholar
  315. Okita N, Topliss D, Lewis M, Row VV, Volpe R (1980 b) Studies of allosuppressor effect on the immunopathology of Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (Abstr). Meeting Canadian Soc Clin Invest, Ottawa, Ontario, October 3–5, 1980 Clin Res 28: 674 AGoogle Scholar
  316. Okita N, Kidd A, Row VV, Volpé R (1981 a) Suppressor T lymphocyte deficiency in Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 52: 528–533Google Scholar
  317. Okita N, Kidd A, Row VV, Volpe R ( 1981 b) T lymphocyte sensitization in Graves’ and Hashimoto’s diseases confirmed by an indirect migration inhibition factor ( MIF) test using normal T lymphocytes as indicator cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 52: 523–527Google Scholar
  318. Onaya T, Kotani M, Yamada T, Ochi Y (1973) New in vitro tests to detect the thyroid stimulator in sera from hyperthyroid patients by measuring colloid droplet formation and cyclic AMP in human thyroid slices. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 36: 859–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Ong M, Malkin DG, Tay SK, Malkin A (1976) Activation of thyroid adenyl cyclase by antisera to thyroid plasma membrane preaprations. Endocrinology 98: 880–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Orgiazzi JDE, Chopra IJ, Solomon DH (1976) Human thyroid adenyl cyclase stimulator in immunoglobulin G (IgG) in patients with Graves’ disease. In: Robbins J, Braverman LE (eds) Thyroid research. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 407–410Google Scholar
  321. Osband M, Parkman R (1978) The control of autoreactivity. I. Lack of autoreactivity in murine spleens is due to concomitant presence of suppressor and autocytotoxic lymphocytes. J Immunol 121: 179–185Google Scholar
  322. Owen CA Jr (1958) A review of auto-immunization in Hashimoto’s disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 18: 1015–1023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Packalén T, Wasserman J (1971) Inhibition of migration of normal guinea pig blood leukocytes by homologous immune gammaglobulin in the presence of specific antigen. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 41: 790–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Paget SA, McMaster PRB, Van Boxel JA (1976) Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in the guinea pig: characterization of infiltrating lymphocyte populations. J Immunol 117: 2267–2269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Parker RH, Beierwaltes WH (1961) Thyroid antibodies during pregnancy and in the newborn. J Clin Endocrinol 21: 792–798Google Scholar
  326. Parry CH (1825) Collections from the unpublished medical writings of the late Caleb Hillier Parry, vol 2. Underwood, London, pp 111–128Google Scholar
  327. Peake RL, Willis DB, Asimakis GK Jr, Deiss WP Jr (1974) Radioimmunologic assay for anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. J Lab Clin Med 84: 907–919Google Scholar
  328. Peilion F, Metzger J, Garnier H, Gilbert-Dreyfus R (1974) Cushing’s syndrome due to primary adrenal tumor with hypothyroidism of autoimmune origin. Ann Med Intern (Paris) 125: 169–175Google Scholar
  329. Penhale WJ, Irvine WJ, Inglis JR, Farmer A (1976) Thyroiditis in T cell depleted rats: suppression of the autoallergic response by reconsitution with normal lymphoid cells. Clin Exp Immunol 25: 6–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Perlman LV (1961) Familial incidence of diabetes in hyperthyroidism. Ann Intern Med 55: 796–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Perloff WH (1956) Thyrotoxicosis following acute thyroiditis: a report of five cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 16: 542–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Pilepich MV, Jackson I, Munzenrider JE, Brown RS (1978) Graves’ disease following irradiation for Hodgkin’s disease. JAMA 240: 1381–1382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Pimstone BL, Hoffenberg R, Black E (1964) Parallel assay of thyrotrophin, long-acting thyroid stimulator and exophthalmos producing substance in endocrine exophthalmos and pretibial myxoedema. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 24: 976–982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Pinchera A, Pinchera MG, Stanbury JB (1965) Thyrotropin and long-acting thyroid stimulator assays in thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 25: 189–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Pinchera A, Liberti P, Martino E, Fenzi GF, Grasso L, Rovis L, Baschieri L (1969) Effect of antithyroid drug therapy on the long-acting thyroid stimulator and the antithyroglobulin antibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 29: 231–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Pinchera A, Fenzi GF, Bartalena L, Chiovato L, Marcocci C, Pacini F (1979) Thyroid antigens involved in autoimmune thyroid disorders. In: Klein E, Horster FA (eds) Autoimmunity in thyroid diseases. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, pp 49–67Google Scholar
  337. Pinchera A, Fenzi GF, Bartalena L, Chiovato L, Marcocci C, Toccafondi R, Rotella ACM, Zonefrati R (1980) Thyroid cell surface and thyroid stimulating antibody in patients with thyroid autoimmune disease. In: Stockigt JR, Nagataki S (eds) Thyroid research VIII. Austral Acad Sci Canberra, pp 707–710Google Scholar
  338. Podleski WK (1972) Cytotoxic lymphocytes in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Clin Exp Immunol 11: 543–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Pulvertaft RJV, Doniach D, Roitt IM (1959) Cytotoxic effects of Hashimoto serum on human thyroid cells in tissue culture. Lancet 2: 214–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Rallison ML, Dobyns BM, Keating FR, Rail JE, Tyler FH (1975) Occurrence and natural history of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in childhood. J Pediatr 86: 675–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Ramsay I (1974) Thyroid disease and muscle dysfunction. Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  342. Rapaport B, Pillarisetty RJ, Herman EA, Clark OH, Conga EG (1978) Production of a non-immunoglobulin thyroid stimulator by human lymphocytes during mixed culture with human thyroid cells. J Biol Chem 253: 631–640Google Scholar
  343. Richter E, Wick G, Zambelis N, Ludwig H, Schernthaner G (1978) Demonstration and characterization of thyroglobulin binding peripheral blood cells in Hashimoto patients by fluoroimmunocytoadherence. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 11: 178–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Riley FC (1972) Orbital pathology in Graves’ disease. Mayo Clin Proc 47: 975–979Google Scholar
  345. Roberts IM, Whittingham S, MacKay IR (1973) Tolerance to an autoantigen — thyroglobulin. Antigen binding lymphocytes in thymus and blood in health and autoimmune disease. Lancet 2:936– 940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Robinson RG, Guttler RB, Rhea TH, Nicoloff JT (1974) Delayed hypersensitivity in Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38: 322–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Rocklin RE, McDermott RP, Coress L, Schlossman SP, David JR (1974) Studies on mediator production by highly purified human T and B lymphocytes. J Exp Med 140: 1303–1316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Roitt IM, Torrigiani G (1967) Identification and estimation of undegraded thyroglobulin in human serum. Endocrinology 81: 421–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Roitt IM, Doniach D, Campbell RN, Hudson RV (1956) Auto-antibodies in Hashimoto’s disease (lymphadenoid goitre). Lancet 2: 820–821Google Scholar
  350. Roitt IM, Ling NR, Doniach D, Couchman KG (1964) The cytoplasmic auto-antigen of the human thyroid. I. Immunological and biochemical characteristics. Immunology 7: 375–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Rose NR, Witebsky E (1956) Studies on organ specificity. V. Changes in the thyroid glands of rabbits following active immunization with rabbit thyroid extracts. J Immunol 76: 417–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Rose NR, Witebsky E (1971) Experimental thyroiditis. In: Samter M, Talmage DW, Rose B, Sherman WB, Vaughan JH (eds) Immunological diseases. Little Brown, Boston, pp 1179–1197Google Scholar
  353. Rundle FF, Pochin EE (1944) The orbital tissues in thyrotoxicosis: a quantitative analysis relating to exophthalmos. Clin Sci 5: 51–74Google Scholar
  354. Saenger EL, Thoma GE, Tompkins EA (1968) Incidence of leukaemia following treatment of hyperthyroidism. JAMA 205: 855–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Salabe GB, Salabe H, Dominici R, Daroli C, Andreoli M (1974) Radioimmunoassay for human antithyroglobulin antibodies. II. Determination of antigen-binding capacity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 39: 1125–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Salabe GB, Salabe H, Accinni L, Dominici R (1978) Receptors for fluoresceinated human thyroglobulin in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Clin Exp Immunol 32: 159–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Salisbury S, Embril JA (1978) Graves’ disease following congenital cytomegalovirus infection. J Pediatr 92: 954–955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Sasazuki P, Kohno Y, Iwamoto I, Kosaka K, Okimoto K, Maruyama H, Ishiba S, Konishi J, Takeda Y, Naito S (1978) HLA and Graves’ disease or diabetes mellitus in Japan. N Engl J Med 298: 630–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Sattler H (1952) Basedow’s disease. Grune & Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  360. Saxon A, Stevens RH, Ramer SJ, Clements PJ, Yu DTY (1978) Glucocorticoids administered in vivo inhibit human suppressor T lymphocyte function and diminish B lymphocyte responsiveness in in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis. J Clin Invest 61: 922–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. Schatz DL, Volpe R, Higgins HP, Steiner G (1979) Primary thyroid failure followed by thyrotoxicosis. Program of the 61st Annual Meeting, Endocrinol Soc, June 13–15, 1979, Anaheim, California, Abstract 889 (to be published)Google Scholar
  362. Scherbaum W, Rosenau KO, Seif FJ (1978) Rheumatoid factors and thyroid antibodies in Graves’-Basedow disease. Acta Endocrinol [Suppl 215] (Copenh) 89: 77–78Google Scholar
  363. Schermer DR, Roenigk HH, Schumacher OP, McKenzie JM (1970) Relation of long-acting thyroid stimulator to pretibial myxedema. Arch Dermatol 102: 62–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Schernthaner G, Schleusener H, Fink ER, Kotulla P, Ludwig H, Mayr WR (1978) Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin and HLA type in patients with ophthalmic Graves’ disease, thyrotoxicosis and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Acta Endocrinol [Suppl 215] (Copenh) 87: 79Google Scholar
  365. Schimpff SC, Diggs CH, Wiswell JG, Salvatore PC Wiernik PH (1980) Radiation related thyroid dysfunction: implications for the treatment of Hodgkin’s disease. Ann Intern Med 92: 91–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Schleusener H, Kotulla P, Kruck I, Kruck G, Geissler D, Adlkofer F (1976) Comparison and evaluation of radioligand receptor assay and the mouse bioassay for the protection of human thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins. In: Robbins J, Braverman LE (eds) Thyroid research. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 414–416Google Scholar
  367. Schleusener H, Wenzel B, Kotulla P, Wenzel KW (1979) Specific binding of blood lymphocytes and humoral antibodies from patients with Graves’ disease to the solubilized TSH receptor. In: Klein E, Horster FA (eds) Autoimmunity in thyroid diseases. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 117–124Google Scholar
  368. Schmidt MB (1926) Eine biglandulare Erkrankung (Nebennieren und Schilddriise) bei morbus Addisonii. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 21: 212–221Google Scholar
  369. Schultz RO, Van Allen MW, Blodi FC (1960) Endocrine ophthalmoplegia, with an electromyographic study of paretic extraocular muscles. Arch Ophthal mol 63: 217–225Google Scholar
  370. Schwartz WL (1973) Hypothyroidism and Addison’s disease totally corrected by adrenal replacement. Calif Med 118: 57–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Shearn MA (1971) Sjogren’s syndrome. Saunders, Philadelphia (Major problems in internal medicine, vol 2 )Google Scholar
  372. Sheets RF (1955) The sequential occurrence of actue thyroiditis and thyrotoxicosis. JAMA 157: 139–140Google Scholar
  373. Shenkman L, Bottone EJ (1976) Antibodies to Yersinia enterocolitica in thyroid disease. Ann Intern Med 85: 735–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Silverberg J, Trokoudes K, Sugenoya A, Row VV, Volpé R (1978 a) Leukocyte adherence inhibition in thyroid disease. Clin Invest Med 1: 93–96Google Scholar
  375. Silverberg J, Row VV, Volpé R (1978 b) Rheumatoid factors in Graves’ disease. Ann Intern Med 88: 216Google Scholar
  376. Simpson J A (1968) The correlation between myaesthenia gravis and disorders of the thyroid gland. In: Muscular Dystrophy Committee (ed) Research in muscular dystrophy. Proc 4th symposium on current research in muscular dystrophy, National Hospital, Queen’s Square, London, January 11–12, 1968. Pitman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  377. Skoldstam L, Anderberg B, Norrby K (1978) B and T lymphocytes in toxic diffuse goitre. Clin Exp Immunol 31: 524–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Smith BR (1976) Immunology of the thyrotropin receptor. Immunol Commun 5: 345–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Smith BR, Hall R (1980) The interaction of Graves’ immunoglobulin with the TSH receptor. In: Stockigt JR, Nagataki S (eds) Thyroid research VIII. Austral Acad Sci Canberra, pp 715–716Google Scholar
  380. Smith BR, Hall R (1974) Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins in Graves’ disease. Lancet 2: 427–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Smith BR, Pyle GA, Peterson VB, Hall R (1977) Interaction of thyroid stimulating antibodies with the human thyrotropin receptor. J Endocrinol 75: 401–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. Solomon DH, Chopra IJ (1972) Graves’ disease. Mayo Clin Proc 47: 803–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Solomon DH, Chopra IJ, Chopra U, Smith FJ (1977) Identification of subgroups of euthyroid ophthalmic Graves’ ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med 296: 181–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Sorkin E, Desodovsky H (1976) Hormonal control of immune processes. In: Proc Vth Internat Congr Endocrinol, July 18–24, 1976, Hamburg, West Germany. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, AbstractGoogle Scholar
  385. Staeheli V, Vallotton MB, Burger A (1975) Detection of human anti-thyroxine and anti-triiodothyronine antibodies in different thyroid conditions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41: 669–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Strakosch CR, Joyner D, Wall JR (1978) Thyroid stimulating antibodies in patients with subacute thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 46: 345–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. Sugenoya A, Trokoudes K, Row VV, Volpé R (1978) The production of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin ( TSI) by lymphocytes from patients with Graves’ disease cultured with human thyroid subcellular fractions. J Endocrinol Invest 1: 245–251Google Scholar
  388. Sugenoya A, Silverberg J, Trokoudes K, Row VV, Volpé R (1979 a) Macrophage-lymphocyte interaction in Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 91: 99–108Google Scholar
  389. Sugenoya A, Kidd A, Trokoudes K, Row VV, Volpé R ( 1979 b) Correlation between thyrotropin displacing activity (TDA) and human thyroid stimulating activity ( TSA) by immunoglobulins from patients with Graves’ disease and other thyroid disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48: 398–402Google Scholar
  390. Sung LC, McDougall IR (1978) Graves’ hyperthyroidism: spontaneous occurrence after autoimmune hypothyroidism with persistent infiltrative ophthalmopathy. Arch Intern Med 138: 1009–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Takahashi H, Bardy MD, Sharma V, Grunt JA (1979) Hyperthyroidism in patients with Down’s syndrome. Clin Pediatr 18: 273–275Google Scholar
  392. Takeda Y, Kriss JP (1977) Radiometric measurement of thyroglobulin-antithyroglobulin immune complex in human serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 44: 46–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Talal N, Roubinian JR (1978) Sex hormones and autoimmunity. In: Rose NR, Bigazzi PE (eds) Genetic control of autoimmune disease. Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp 163–176Google Scholar
  394. Teng CS, Yeung RTT (1980) Changes in thyroid stimulating antibody activity in Graves’ disease treated with antithyroid drug and its relationship to relapse: a prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 144–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. Teng CS, Smith BR, Clayton B, Evered DC, Clark F, Hall R (1977) Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins in ophthalmic Graves’ disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 6: 207–211Google Scholar
  396. Teng CS, Yeung RTT, Khoo RKK, Alagaratnam TT (1980) A prospective study of the changes in thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulins in Graves’ disease treated by subtotal thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 1005–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. Thorsby E, Svejgaard E, Solem JH, Kornstad L (1975) The frequency of major histocompatibility antigens ( SD and LD) in thyrotoxicosis. Tissue Antigens 6: 54–55Google Scholar
  398. Topliss DJ, White EL, Stockigt JR (1980) Significance of thyrotropin excess in untreated primary adrenal insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 52–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Totterman TH (1978) Distribution of T, B and thyroglobulin-binding lymphocytes infiltrating the thyroid gland in Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and DeQuervain’s thyroiditis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 10: 270–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Totterman TH, Gordin A, Hayry P, Andersson LC, Makinen T (1978) Accumulation of thyroid antigen-reactive T lymphocytes in the gland of patients with subacute thyroiditis. Clin Exp Immunol 32: 153–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. Totterman TH, Andersson LC, Hayry P (1979) Evidence for thyroid antigen-reactive T lymphocytes infiltrating the thyroid gland in Graves’ disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 11: 59–68Google Scholar
  402. Trokoudes KM, Sugenoya A, Hazani E, Row VV, Volpe R (1979) Thyroid stimulating hormone binding to extrathyroidal human tissues. TSH and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin effects on adenosine 3′, 5′ monophosphate in testicular and adrenal tissue. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48: 919–923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. Tunbridge WMG (1979) The epidemiology of hypothyroidism. Clin Endocrinol Metab 8: 21–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. Ungar B, Mathews JD, Tait BD, Cowling DC (1977) HLA patterns in pernicious anaemia. Br Med J 1: 798–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. Van Boxel JA, Paul WE, Frank MM, Green I (1973) Antibody-dependent lymphoid cell-mediated cytotoxicity: role of lymphocytes bearing a receptor for complement. J Immunol 110: 1027–1036Google Scholar
  406. Van der Heide D, Daha MR, Bolk JH, Bussemaker JK, DeBruin TWA, Goslings BM, van Es LA (1980) Circulating immune complexes and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins before, during and after antithyroid drug therapy in patients with Graves’ disease Lancet 1: 1376–1379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. Van Herle AJ, Uller RP, Matthews NL, Brown J (1973) Radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyroglobulin in human serum. J Clin Invest 52: 1320–1327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Van Herle AJ, Vassart G, Dumont JE (1979) Control of thyroglobulin synthesis and secretion. N Engl J Med 301:239–249; 307–314Google Scholar
  409. Van Welsum M, Feltkamp TEW, DeVries MJ, Docter R, Van Zijl J, Henneman G (1974) Hypothyroidism after thyroidectomy for Graves’ disease: a search for an explanation. Br Med J 4: 755–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Verhoeven RP, Visser TJ, Docter R, Henneman G, Schalekamp MADH (1974) Plasma thyroxine, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine and 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine during beta adrenergic blockade in hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 44: 1002–1005Google Scholar
  411. Vickery AL, Hamlin E Jr (1961) Struma lymphomatosa (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis): observations on repeated biopsies in 16 patients. N Engl J Med 264: 226–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. Vladutiu AO, Rose NR (1971) Transfer of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis of the mouse by serum. J Immunol 106: 1139–1142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Vladutiu AO, Rose NR (1972) Murine thyroiditis. III. Influence of syngeneic and allogeneic thyroid antigen on induction of the disease. Clin Exp Immunol 2: 242–254Google Scholar
  414. Vladutiu AO, Rose NR (1975) Cellular basis of the genetic control of immune responsiveness to murine thyroglobulin in mice. Cell Immunol 17: 106–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. Vogel F (1959) Moderne Probleme der Humangenetik. Ergeb Inn Med Kinderheilkd 12: 52–125Google Scholar
  416. Volpé R (1976) Acute and subacute thyroiditis. Pharmacol Ther [C] 1: 171–181Google Scholar
  417. Volpé R (1977) The role of autoimmunity in hypoendocrine and hyperendocrine function, with special emphasis on autoimmune thyroid disease. Ann Intern Med 87: 86–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. Volpé R (1978 a) The pathogenesis of Graves’ disease: an overview. Clin Endocrinol Metab 7:3–29Google Scholar
  419. Volpé R ( 1978 b) The genetics and immunology of Graves’ and Hashimoto’s diseases. In: Rose NR, Bigazzi PE, Warner NL (eds) Genetic control of autoimmune disease. Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp 43–56Google Scholar
  420. Volpé R (1978c) Lymphocytic (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis. In: Werner SC, and Ingbar SH (eds) The thyroid, a fundamental and clinical text, 4th ed. Harper & Row, New York, pp 996–1008Google Scholar
  421. Volpé R (1979 a) Subacute (DeQuervain’s) thyroiditis. Clin Endocrinol Metab 8:81–96Google Scholar
  422. Volpé R ( 1979 b) Autoimmunity in chronic thyroiditis. In: Klein E, Horster FA (eds) Autoimmunity in thyroid diseases. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 33–18Google Scholar
  423. Volpé R, Row VV (1975) Proportion of E rosettes normal in Graves’ and Hashimoto’s diseases: a retraction. N Engl J Med 293: 44Google Scholar
  424. Volpé R, Vale J, Johnston MW (1960) The effect of certain physical and emotional tensions and strains on fluctuations in the level of serum protein bound iodine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 20: 415–528Google Scholar
  425. Volpé R, Row VV, Ezrin C (1967) Circulating viral and thyroid antibodies in subacute thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 27: 1275–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. Volpé R, Desbarats-Schonbaum ML, Schonbaum E, Row VV, Ezrin C (1969) The effect of radioablation of the thyroid gland in Graves’ disease with high levels of long acting thyroid stimulator ( LATS ). Am J Med 46: 217–226Google Scholar
  427. Volpé R, Edmonds MW, Clarke PV, Row VV (1970) A viewpoint regarding the nature of the emergence of long-acting thyroid stimulator of Graves’ disease. Acta Endocrinol Panam 1: 155–170Google Scholar
  428. Volpé R, Edmonds MW, Lamki L, Clarke PV, Row VV (1972) The pathogenesis of Graves’ disease: a disorder of delayed hypersensitivity? Mayo Clin Proc 47: 824–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. Volpé R, Clarke PV, Row VV (1973) The relationship of age-specific incidence rates to immunological aspects of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Can Med Assoc J 109: 898–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. Volpé R, Farid NR, von Westarp C, Row VV (1974) The pathogenesis of Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 3: 239–261Google Scholar
  431. Volpé R, Row VV (1975) Proportion of E rosettes normal in Graves’ and Hashimoto’s diseases: a retraction. N Engl J Med 293: 44Google Scholar
  432. Von Basedow CA (1840) Exophthalmos durch Hypertrophie des Zellgewebes in der Augenhöhle. Wochensch Gesamte Heilkd 13: 198–228Google Scholar
  433. von Westarp C, Knox AJS, Row VV, Volpé R (1977) Comparison of thyroid antigens by the experimental production of precipitating antibodies to human thyroid fractions and the identification of an antibody which competes with long acting thyroid stimulator for thyroid binding. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 84: 759–769Google Scholar
  434. von Westarp C, Garcia A, Wilkins J (1980) Human thyrotropin receptor purification by affinity chromatography. 62nd Meeting, Endocrinol Soc, Washington, DC, June 18–20,1980, Abstract 307 (to be published)Google Scholar
  435. Walfish PG, Green N (1980) Post-partum recurrence of the transient thyrotoxicosis and painless thyroiditis syndrome. 62nd Meeting, Endocrinol Soc, Washington, DC, June 18–20, 1980, Abstract 513 (to be published)Google Scholar
  436. Wall JR, Ryan EA (1980) Leukocyte migration inhibition factor (LMIF) production in response to bacterial and fungal antigens in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism: suppression by concanavalin-A induced suppressor cells. In: Pinchera A (ed) Autoimmune aspects of endocrine disorders. Academic Press, New York, pp 235–240Google Scholar
  437. Wall JR, Fang SL, Ingbar SH, Braverman LE (1976 a) Lymphocyte transformation in response to human thyroid extract in patients with subacute thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43: 587–590Google Scholar
  438. Wall JR, Manwar GL, Greenwood DM, Walters BA (1976 b) The in vitro suppression of lectin induced 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA of peripheral blood lymphocytes after the addition of propylthiouracil. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43: 1406–1409Google Scholar
  439. Wall JR, Gray B, Greenwood DM (1977) Total and “activated” peripheral blood T lymphocytes in patients with thyroid disorders. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 85: 753–759Google Scholar
  440. Wall JR, Trewin A, Fang SL, Ingbar SH, Braverman LE (1978) Studies of immunoreactivity to human lacrimal gland fractions in patients with ophthalmic Graves’ disease. J Endocrinol Invest 1: 253–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  441. Wall JR, Joyner DM, Ryan EA (1979 a) In: Pinchera A (ed) Effect of experimental hyper- and hypothyroidism on B and T lymphocyte reactivity to bacterial, fungal and tissue antigens. In: Autoimmune aspects of endocrine disorders, Pisa, Italy, 19–21 April 1979. Academic Press, New York, 1980, pp 215–220Google Scholar
  442. Wall JR, Strakosch CR, Fang SL, Ingbar SH, Braverman LE ( 1979 b) Thyroid binding antibodies and other immunological abnormalities in patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Effect of treatment with cyclophosphamide. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 10: 79–91Google Scholar
  443. Wall JR, Henderson J, Strakosch CR, Joyner DM (1981) Graves’ ophthalmopathy — a review. Can Med Assoc J 124: 855–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. Wartenberg J, Doniach D, Brostoff J, Roitt IM (1973) Leukocyte migration inhibition in human autoimmune thyroid disease. Clin Exp Immunol 14: 203–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. Wasnich RD, Grumet FC, Payne RO, Kriss JP (1973) Graves’ ophthalmopathy following external neck irradiation for nonthyroidal neoplastic disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37: 703–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. Weigle WO, Romball CG (1975) Humoral and cell-mediated immunity in experimental progressive thyroiditis in rabbits. Clin Exp Immunol 21: 351–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. Weissel M, Höfer R, Zasmeta H, Mayr WR (1980) HLA-DR and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Tissue Antigens 16: 256–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. Wekerle H, Begemann M (1978) In vitro induction of experimental autoimmune orchitis. Characterization of a primary T-lymphocyte response against testicular self-antigens. Eur J Immunol 8: 294–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. Wenzel KW, Schleusener H, Weise W (1974) Durch externe Schilddrüsenbestrahlung ausgelöste Hyperthyreose und endokrine Ophthalmopathie. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 99: 2036–2039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. Wenzel B, Kotulla P, Schleusener H (1978) Binding of solubilized human TSH receptor by peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with Graves’ disease (Abstract 37). Ann Endocrinol (Paris) t 39:22 AGoogle Scholar
  451. Werner SC (1979) Graves’ disease following acute (subacute) thyroiditis. Arch Intern Med 139: 1313–1315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. Werner SC, Fierer JA (1972) Cell-mediated immunity in Graves’ disease? N Engl J Med 287: 1251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. Werner SC, Ingbar SH (1978) The thyroid, a fundamental and clinical text, 4th ed. Harper & Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  454. Werner SC, Wegelius O, Fierer JA, Hsu (1972) Immunoglobulins ( EMG) and complement in the connective tissues of the thyroid in Graves’ disease. N Engl J Med 287: 421–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. Werner SC, Platman SR (1965) Remission of hyperthyroidism ( Graves’ disease) and altered pattern of serum thyroxine binding induced by prednisone. Lancet 2: 751–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Whaley K, Webb J, McAvoy BA, Hughes GRV, Lee P, MacSween RNM, Buchanan WW (1973) Sjogren’s syndrome. II. Clinical associations and immunological phenomena. Q J Med 42: 513–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. Wick G (1975) Experimental animal models in autoimmune thyroid disease. Clin Endocrinol Metab 4: 241–266Google Scholar
  458. Wick G, Boyd R (1979) Effector mechanisms in thyroid autoimmune diseases. In: Klein K, Horster FA (eds) Autoimmunity in thyroid diseases. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 23–29Google Scholar
  459. Wick G, Graf J (1972) Electron-microscopic studies in chickens of the obese strain with spontaneous hereditary autoimmune thyroiditis. Lab Invest 27: 400–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. Wick G, Sundick RS, Albini B (1974) The Obese strain (OS) of chickens: an animal model with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 3: 272–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. Wick G, Kofler R, Gundolf R, Muller PU, Boyd R (1979) The nature of effector cells in experimental and spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis. In: Milgrom F, Albini S (eds) Immunopathology. Karger, Basel, pp 101–106Google Scholar
  462. Wigzell H, Binz H, Frischknecht H, Peterson P, Sege K (1978) Possible roles of auto–antiidiotypic immunity in auto-immune disease. In: Rose NR, Bigazzi PE, Warner NL (eds) Genetic control of autoimmune disease. Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp 327–342Google Scholar
  463. Wilkin TJ, Beck JS, Gunn A, Al Moussah M, Isles TE, Crooks J (1980) Autoantibodies in thyrotoxicosis: a quantitative study of their behaviour in relation to the course and outcome of the disease. J Endocrinol Invest 3: 5–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. Witebsky E, Rose NR (1956) Studies on organ specificity. IV. Production of rabbit thyroid antibodies in the rabbit. J Immunol 76: 408–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. Wood LC, Maloof F (1975) Thyroid failure after potassium iodide treatment of diffuse toxic goiter. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 88: 235–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. Wood LD, Ingbar SH (1979) Hypothyroidism as a late sequela in patients with Graves’ disease treated with antithyroid agents. J Clin Invest 64: 1429–1436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  467. Wyse EP, McConahey WM, Woolner LB, Scholz DA, Kearns TP (1968) Ophthalmopathy without hyperthyroidism in patients with histologic Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 28: 1623–1629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. Yamamoto T, Sakamoto H (1978) Spontaneous remission from primary hypothyroidism. Ann Intern Med 88: 808–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. Yamamoto M, Rapaport B, Clark OH (1978) Evidence for increased production of prostaglandin E by the thyroid in Graves’ disease. 54th Meeting, Am Thyroid Assoc, Portland, Oregon, 13–16 September 1978, Abstract T2 (to be published)Google Scholar
  470. Yeo PPB, Cheah JS, Sinriah R ( 1978 a) Pretibial myxoedema. A clinical and pathological study. Aust NZ J Med 8: 60–62Google Scholar
  471. Yeo PPB, Chan SH, Lui KF, Wee GB, Lim P, Cheah JS (1978 b) HLA and thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. Br Med J 2: 930–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. Yoshida T, Sonozaki H, Cohen S (1973) The production of macrophage migration inhibition factor by B and T cells of the guinea pig. J Exp Med 138: 784–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  473. Yoshida H, Amino N, Yagawa K, Uemura K, Satoh M, Miyai K, Kumahara Y (1978) Association of serum antithyroid antibodies with lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid gland: study of 70 autopsied cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 46: 859–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. Zakarija M, McKenzie JM ( 1978 a) Adsorption of thyroid stimulating antibody ( TSAb) of Graves’ disease by homologous and heterologous thyroid tissue. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 47: 906–908Google Scholar
  475. Zakarija M, McKenzie JM (1978 b) Zoological specificity of human thyroid stimulating antibody. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 47: 249–254Google Scholar
  476. Zakarija M, McKenzie JM (1980) Immunochemical characterization of thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb). In: Stockigt JR, Nagataki S (eds) Thyroid research VIII. Austral Acad Sci Canberra, pp 669–672Google Scholar
  477. Zakarija M (1980) The thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) of Graves’ disease: evidence for restricted heterogeneity. Horm Res 13: 1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. Ziring PR, Fedun BH, Cooper LA (1975) Thyrotoxicosis in congenital rubella. J Pediatr 87: 1002PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Volpé
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.The Wellesley HospitalTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations