The Application of Fracture Mechanics to Ice Problems
Linear elastic fracture mechanics concerns the application of crack tip characterizing parameters to the study of instability phenomena of cracked bodies. These parameters are G, the strain energy release rate, K, the stress intensification factor, and CTOD, the crack tip opening displacement. Successful applications are associated with brittle fracture studies and fatigue crack propagation in metals when plasticity is limited. For non-linear elastic behaviour of crack tip material the J contour integral is an improved parameter.
None of these parameters however quantify the propagation of cracks, rather they are concerned with the initiation situation; cf. the relation between yield point and plastic flow behaviour of materials. Thus G, K, CTOD and J do not quantify stable crack growth although they have been used as characterizing parameters for crack growth in ductile materials. The difficulty in the quantification of crack initiation and growth are the roles played by plasticity, time dependent deformation and differing fracture processes and recent developments have centred on C* and a crack growth parameter G∆.
All of these parameters will be briefly reviewed and their relevance to the fracture of ice outlined both from a theoretical and an experimental viewpoint.
KeywordsFatigue Brittle Recrystallization EPFM
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Miller, K. J. Traverse of the Staunings Alps, North-East Greenland. Alpine Journal 81 (1976) 143-152Google Scholar
- Griffith, A. A. The phenomena of rupture and flow in solids. Phil.Trans.Roy.Soc. 1921 A22l, 163 - 198Google Scholar
- Irwin, G. R. Fracture dynamics. Fracturing of metals A.S.M. Cleveland 1948Google Scholar
- Irwin, G. R. and Kies, J. A. Fracturing and fracture dynamics. Weld. J. Res. Suppl. 17 (1952) 95s - 103sGoogle Scholar
- Irwin, G. R. Analysis of stresses and strains near the end of a crack traversing a plate. J.App.Mech. 24 (1957) 361 - 364Google Scholar
- Knott, J. F. Fundamentals of Fracture Mechanics (1973) ButterworthsGoogle Scholar
- Rooke, D. P. and Cartwright, D. J. Compendium of Stress Intensity factors. HMSO 1976Google Scholar
- Liu, H. W. Discussion in Fracture toughness testing and its applications. ASTM (1965) S.T.P. 381 p. 23 - 29Google Scholar
- Wells, A. A. Unstable crack propagation in metals: cleavage and fast fracture. Crack Propagation Symposium, Cranfield 1961Google Scholar
- Rice, J. R. A path independent integral and the approximate analysis of strain concentration by notches and cracks. J. Appl. Mechanics. (1968) 379 - 386Google Scholar
- Eshelby, J. D. Solid State Physics 3, Ed Seitz F. & Turnbull D. New York (1956) 79 - 144Google Scholar
- Landes, J. D. and Begley J. A. A Fracture Mechanics Approach to creep crack growth. Westinghouse Res.Lab.Rep. (1974) 74–1E7-FESGT-PlGoogle Scholar
- Nikbin, K. M., Webster, G. A., and Turner, C. E. A comparison of methods of correlating creep crack growth. Proc. ICF 4 (1977) 627–634Google Scholar
- Ellison, E. G., and Walton, D. Fatigue, creep and cyclic creep crack propagation in a 1% Cr-Mo-V Steel. Instn.mech.engrs. (1973/74). 1,p173.1 - 173.12Google Scholar
- Rice, J. R. An examination of the fracture mechanics energy balance from the point of view of continuum mechanics ICF 1 (1966) p309 - 340. 1st Inst.Conf. on Fracture, Sendai, Japan 1965, Japanese Society for Strength & Fracture of Materials 1966Google Scholar
- Kfouri, A. P., and Miller, K. J. Crack Separation Energy Rates in Elastic - Plastic Fracture Mechanics. Proc.lnstn.mech.Engs. 190 (1976) 571–584. First published as a Cambridge University Report (1974) CUED/C-Mat/TRl8Google Scholar
- Rice, J. R. and Johnson, M. A. Inelastic behaviour of Solids Ed. M.F. Kanninen et al. McGraw-Hill, New York (1960) 641–672Google Scholar
- Miller, K. J. and Kfouri, A. P. A comparison of Elastic-Plastic Fracture Parameters in Biaxial Stress-States ASTM STP 668 (1979) 214–228Google Scholar
- Kfouri, A. P. and Miller, K. J. The effect of load biaxiality on the fracture toughness parameters J and G△.Proc. ICF 4 (1977) 241–245Google Scholar
- Kfouri, A. P. and Rice J. R. Elastic/Plastic Separation Energy Rate for Crack Advance in Finite Growth Steps Proc. ICF4, 1, (1977) 43 - 59Google Scholar
- Miller, K. J. Fatigue under complex stress. Metal Science Journal August/September 1977 432 - 438Google Scholar
- Howard, 1. C. Models of the reduction of fracture toughness due to hydrogen in strong steels. Proc. ICM3 2 (1979) 463 - 474Google Scholar
- Miller, K. J., Sheffield University 1978 Greenland Expedition Report. To be published.Google Scholar