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Image Processing Based on the Linear Theory of Image Formation

  • P. W. Hawkes
Part of the Topics in Current Physics book series (TCPHY, volume 13)

Abstract

For a limited class of specimens, there is a linear relation between the contrast variation in the bright-field electron image and the phase and amplitude variation of the object. For dark-field imaging, a linear relation is satisfied only if very restrictive conditions are satisfied, so restrictive that image processing operations that exploit linearity are of relatively little interest. More than one mechanism is at work in the formation of the bright-field image in a conventional transmission electron microscope. Electrons that are scattered through large angles within the specimen strike the objective aperture and their absence from the image plane creates contrast that is not unlike amplitude contrast in the light microscope. Scattered electrons that are not intercepted by the objective aperture all reach the image plane but the additional deflection due to spherical aberration and defocus combines with the specimen scattering to provide some image contrast. The action of the spherical aberration and defocus is analogous to that of a phase plate of variable thickness in the radial direction and this type of contrast is therefore phase contrast. Unfortunately, owing to the nonuniformity of the phase shifts, the corresponding image detail does not necessarily represent the object structure faithfully. Contrast reversals may occur and some detail will be entirely suppressed. Nevertheless, for specimens that scatter weakly, bright-field image contrast and complex specimen transparency are connected by a linear relation; it is this relation and the various techniques that have been proposed for exploiting it that form the subject of this chapter. Generally speaking, the relation between a dark-field image and the specimen structure is considerably more complicated, and the types of artefact that may arise, although easy to predict, are much more difficult to eliminate; this is true of all the dark-field modes in use. For modest resolutions, image contrast and object structure are related linearly but it seems unlikely that computer image processing will have much to offer in this domain.

Keywords

Baton Rouge Electron Optic Spherical Aberration Wiener Filter Partial Coherence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. W. Hawkes

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