Parental behaviour is any activity performed by one or both parents, after spawning has occurred, that contributes to the survival of their offspring. This does not include cases such as the viviparous fishes, where the female carries her developing young internally for some time before releasing them, or salmonids and others that cover their fertilized eggs with gravel and then desert them. Even though such activities do protect the young, I shall limit the term parental behaviour to the active care and protection of the offspring after spawning.
KeywordsRubber Explosive Sponge Silt Turbidity
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