There are two important reasons for studying the risk of induction of thyroid cancer following irradiation. One is for radiological protection purposes, to help in setting radiation exposure limits for the thyroid in children and adults; the other reason is to assess the risk of thyroid cancer following radiation treatment of the head and neck region, which may include the thyroid in the primary or scattered beam, or the use of radioiodines in therapeutic or diagnostic procedures. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the existing data on radiation-induced thyroid cancers and to evaluate the risk.
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