Textures in Superfluid 3He

  • Kazumi Maki
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 8)

Abstract

Superfluid 3He is a new phase of liquid 3He at extremely low temperatures (below 3 mK). It consists of two distinct phases; 3He-A and 3He-B (although the third phase 3He-A1 appears in the presence of magnetic fields). The phase diagram is shown in Fig.l. Superfluid 3He arises from the pair condensation of 3He-atoms just like the superconductivity in metals is due to the electronic pair condensation. However, unlike the case of a superconductor, the pairing takes place in the spin triplet P wave state. This indicates that the condensate is characterized by a nine-component complexorder parameter Aμi (μ, i = 1,2,3) where μ and i are spin and orbital indices. This large degree of freedom associated with the order parameter implies high degeneracy in the ground state of superfluid 3He in the absence of external perturbation. In particular superfluid 3He possesses three distinct classes of Goldstone bosons; zero sound, spin wave and orbital wave. Furthermore, superfluid 3He exhibits rich phenomena associated with textures like liquid crystals.

Keywords

Vortex Anisotropy Attenuation Soliton Coherence 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazumi Maki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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