Diagnosis, Classification, and Nomenclature of Bone Tumors

  • Fritz Schajowicz
Part of the Handbuch der Medizinischen Radiologie / Encyclopedia of Medical Radiology book series (HDBRADIOL, volume 5 / 6)


There is still a great deal of confusion regarding the interpretation of bone tumors and a considerable diversity of opinion regarding the histogenesis, nomenclature, classification, and treatment of bone tumors and tumorlike conditions. This is partly due to their relative rarity, and to the difficulty in accumulating an appreciable number of cases with a good standard of technical preparation of the material.


Giant Cell Tumor Osteoid Osteoma Glomus Tumor Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma Desmoplastic Fibroma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Bone-Forming Tumors (Benign and Malignant)

  1. Barry, H.C.: Paget’s disease of bone. Edinburgh: E.&S. Livinstone, 1969Google Scholar
  2. Byers, P.D.: Solitary benign osteoblastic lesions of bone-Osteoid osteoma and benign osteoblastoma. Cancer (Philad.) 22, 43–57 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Collins, D.H.: Paget’s disease of bone. Incidence and subclinical forms. Lancet 2, 51–57 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dahlin, D.C., Coventry,M.B.: Osteogenic sarcoma; a study of six hundred cases. J. Bone Jt Surg. 49 A, 101–110 (1967)Google Scholar
  5. Dahlin, D.C., Johnson, E.W., Jr.: Giant osteoid osteoma. J. Bone Jt Surg. 36 A, 559–572 (1954)Google Scholar
  6. D’AubignĒ, R.M., Meary, R., Mazabraud, A.: Sarcome osteogenique juxtacortical. Rev. Chir. orthop. 45, 873–884 (1959)Google Scholar
  7. Davidson, J.W., Chacha, P.B., James, W.: Multiple osteosarcomata. J. Bone Jt Surg. 47B, 537–541 (1965)Google Scholar
  8. Dwinnell, L.A., Dahlin,D.C., Ghormley, R.K.: Parosteal (Juxtacortical) osteogenic sarcoma. J. Bone Jt Surg. 36A, 732–744 (1954)Google Scholar
  9. Fine, G., Stout, A.P.: Osteogenic sarcoma of the extraskeletal soft tissues. Cancer (Philad.) 9, 1027–1043 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fitzgerald, D.D., Dahlin, D.C., Sim, M.D.: Metachronous osteogenic sarcoma. Report of twelve cases with two long-term survivors. J. Bone Jt Surg. 55-A, No. 3, 595–605, 1973Google Scholar
  11. Freiberger, R.H., Loitman,B.S., Halpern, M., Thompson, T.C.: Osteoid osteoma. A report of 80 cases. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 82, 194–205 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Jaffe, H.L.: Osteoid osteoma: A benign osteoblastic tumor composed of osteoid and atypical bone. Arch. Surg. (Chicago) 31, 709–728 (1935)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jaffe, H.L.: Benign osteoblastoma. Bull. Hosp. Jt Dis. (N.Y.) 17, 141–151 (1956)Google Scholar
  14. Lichtenstein, L., Sawyer,W.R.: Benign osteoblastoma. Further observations and report of 20 additional cases. J. Bone Jt Surg. 46A, 755–765 (1964)Google Scholar
  15. Lindbom, A., Söderberg,G., Spjut, H.L.: Osteosarcoma. Review of 96 cases. Acta radiol. (Stockh.) 56, 1–19 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McKenna, R.J., Schwinn,C.P., Soong, K.Y., Higinbotham, N.L.: Osteogenic sarcoma arising in Paget’s disease. Cancer (Philad.) 17, 42–66 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McKenna, R.J., Schwinn,C.P., Soong, K.Y., Higinbotham, N.L.: Sarcomata of the osteogenic series (osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, parosteal osteogenic sarcoma, and sarcomata arising in abnormal bone): An analysis of 552 cases. J. Bone Jt Surg. 48A, 1–26 (1966)Google Scholar
  18. O’Hara, J.M., Hutter,R.P.V., Foote, F.W., Miller, T., Woodard, H.Q.: An analysis of thirty patients surviving longer than ten years after treatment from osteogenic sarcoma. J. Bone Jt Surg. 50A, 335–354 (1968)Google Scholar
  19. Porretta, C.A., Dahlin, D.C., James, J.M.: Sarcoma in Paget’s disease of bone. J. Bone Jt Surg. 39 A, 1314–1329 (1957)Google Scholar
  20. Price, C.H.G.: The prognosis of osteosarcoma. Brit. J. Radiol. 39, 181 (1966)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Price, C.H.G., Goldie, W.: Paget’s sarcoma of bone: A study of 80 cases. J. Bone Jt Surg. 51B, 205–224 (1969)Google Scholar
  22. Scaglietti, O., Calandriello, B.: Ossifying parosteal sarcoma : parosteal osteoma or juxtacortical osteogenic sarcoma. J. Bone Jt Surg. 44A, 635–647 (1962)Google Scholar
  23. Schajowicz, F., Lemos, C.: Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma closely related entities of osteoblastic derivation. Acta orthop. scand. 41, 272–291 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schajowicz, F., Slullitel, I.: Giant cell tumor associated with Paget’s disease. J. Bone Jt Surg. 48A, 1340–1349 (1966)Google Scholar
  25. Schajowicz, F., Lemos, C.: Malignant osteoblastoma. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 58 B, 202–211 (1976)Google Scholar
  26. Sim, F., Cupps, R., Dahlin,D., Ivins, J.M.D.: Postradiation sarcoma of bone. J. Bone Jt Surg. 54-A, 1479–1489 (1972)Google Scholar
  27. Sweetnam, R.M.D.: Amputation in osteosarcoma. J. Bone Jt Surg. 55-B, 189–192 (1973)Google Scholar

Cartlage-Forming Tumors (Benign and Malignant)

  1. Barnes, R., Catto, M.: Chondrosarcoma of bone. J. Bone Jt Surg. 48B, 729–764 (1966)Google Scholar
  2. Bethge, J.F.J.: Hereditäre multiple Exostosen und ihre pathogenetische Deutung. Arch, orthop. Unfall-Chir. 54, 667–696 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Codman, E.A.: Epiphyseal chondromatous giant cell tumors of the upper end of the humerus. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 52, 543–548 (1931)Google Scholar
  4. Dahlin, D.C.: Chondromyxoid fibroma of bone with emphasis on its morphological relationship to benign chondroblastoma. Cancer (Philad.) 9, 195–203 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dahlin, D.C., Henderson,E.D.: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma : further observations on a new entity. Cancer (Philad.) 15, 410–417 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ehrenfried, A.: Multiple cartilaginous exostoses, hereditary deforming chondrodysplasia. J. Amer. med. Ass. 64, 1642–1646 (1915)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fairbank, H.A.T.: Dyschondroplasia. Synonyms: Ollier’s disease, multiple enchondroma. J. Bone Jt Surg. 30B, 689–708 (1948)Google Scholar
  8. Goldman, R.L.: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a rare malignant chondroid tumor usually primary in bone. Report of a case arising in extraskeletal soft tissue. Cancer (Philad.), vol. 20, 1494–1498 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Henderson, E.D., Dahlin, D.C.: Chondrosarcoma of bone. A study of two hundred and eighty-eight cases. J. Bone Jt Surg. 45A, 1450–1458 (1963)Google Scholar
  10. Huvos, A., Marcove, R., Erlandson, R., Mike, M.D.: Chondroblastoma of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 29, No. 3, 760–771 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jaffe, H.H.: Juxtacortical chondroma. Bull Hosp. Jt Dis. (N.Y.) 17, 20–29 (1956)Google Scholar
  12. Jaffe, H.L.: Hereditary multiple exostosis. Arch. Path. (Chicago) 36, 335–357 (1943)Google Scholar
  13. Jaffe, H.L., Lichtenstein, L.: Benign chondroblastoma of bone : A reinterpretation of the so-called calcifying or chondromatous giant cell tumor. Amer. J. Path. 18, 969–992 (1942)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jaffe, H.L., Lichtenstein, L.: Chondromyxoid fi broma of bone : A distinctive benign tumor, likely to be mistaken especially for chondrosarcoma. Arch. Path. (Chicago) 45, 541–551 (1948)Google Scholar
  15. Kahn, L.B., Wood, F.M., Ackerman, L.V.: Malignant chondroblastoma. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Arch. Path. (Chicago) 88, 371–376 (1969)Google Scholar
  16. Levine, G., Bensch,K.M.D.: Chondroblastoma-the nature of the basic cell. A study by means of histochemistry, tissue culture, electron microscopy and autoradiography. Cancer (Philad.) 29, 1546–1562 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lichtenstein, L., Hall, J.E.: Periosteal chondroma: A distinctive benign cartilage tumor. J. Bone Jt Surg. 34A, 691–697 (1952)Google Scholar
  18. Lichtenstein, L., Bernstein, D.: Unusual benign and malignant chondroid tumors of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 12, 1142–1157 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marcove, R.C., Kambolis, C., Bullough, P.G., Jaffe, H.L.: Fibromyxoma of bone. A report of three cases. Cancer (Philad.) 17, 1209–1213 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Merlino, A.F., Nixon, J.E.: Periosteal chondroma. Amer. J. Surg. 107, 773–776 (1964)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nosanchuc, J.K., Kaufer, H.: Recurrent periosteal chondroma. Report of two cases and review of the literature. J. Bone Jt Surg. 51A, 375–380 (1969)Google Scholar
  22. Ralph, L.L.: Chondromyxoid fibroma of bone. J. Bone Jt Surg. 44B, 7–24 (1962)Google Scholar
  23. Rockwell, M., Safter, E., Enneking, W.M.D.,: Periosteal chondroma. J. Bone Jt Surg. 54A, 102–108 (1972)Google Scholar
  24. Schajowicz, F., Gallardo,H.: Epiphyseal chondroblastoma of bone. A clinico-pathological study of 69 cases. J. Bone Jt Surg. 52B, 205–226 (1970)Google Scholar
  25. Schajowicz, F., Gallardo,H.: Chondromyxoid fibroma (fibromyxoid chondroma) of bone. Clinicopathological study of 32 cases. J. Bone Jt Surg. 53B, 198–216 (1971)Google Scholar
  26. Takigawa, K.M.D.: Chondroma of the bones of the hand. A review of 110 cases. J. Bone Jt Surg. 53A, 1591–1600 (1971)Google Scholar
  27. Tiwisina, T.: Dyschondroplasia (Ollier) mit multiplen Hämangiomen und örtlicher maligner Entartung (Chondrosarkom). Beitr. klin. Chir. 88, 8–15 (1954)Google Scholar

Giant Cell Tumor (Osteoclastoma)

  1. Dahlin, D.C., Cupps, R.E., Johnson, E.W., Jr.. Giant cell tumor. A study of 195 cases. Cancer (Philad.) 25, 1061 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hutter, R.V.P., Worcester, J.N., Jr., Francis, K.C., Foote, F.W., Jr., Stewart, F.W.: Benign and malignant giant cell tumors of bone. A clinicopathological analysis of the natural history of the disease. Cancer (Philad.) 15, 653–690 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Jaffe, H.L., Lichtenstein, L., Portis,R.B.: Giant cell tumor of bone: Its pathologic appearance, grading, supposed variants, and treatment. Arch. Path. (Chicago) 30, 993–1031 (1940)Google Scholar
  4. Jewell, J.H., Bush, L.F.: Benign giant cell tumor of bone with a solitary pulmonary metastasis. A case report. J. Bone Jt Surg. 46A, 848–852 (1964)Google Scholar
  5. Mnaymneh, W.A., Dudley, H.R., Mnaymenh, L.G.: Giant cell tumor of bone: An analysis and followup study of the forty-one cases observed at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1925 and 1960. J. Bone Jt Surg. 46A, 63–75 (1964)Google Scholar
  6. Murphy, W.R., Ackerman,L.V.: Benign and malignant giant-cell tumors of bone. A clinical-pathological evaluation of thirty-one cases. Cancer (Philad.) 9, 317–339 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Pan, P., Dahlin, D.C., Lipscomb, P.R., Bernatz, P.E.: Benign giant cell tumor of the radius with pulmonary metastasis. Proc. Mayo Clin. 39, 341–349 (1964)Google Scholar
  8. Schajowicz, F.: Giant-cell tumors of bone (Osteoclastoma). A pathological and histochemical study. J. Bone Jt Surg. 43 A, 1–29 (1961)Google Scholar
  9. Thomson, A.D., Turner-Warwick,R.T.: Skeletal sarcomata and giant-cell tumour. J. Bone Jt Surg. 37B, 226–303 (1955)Google Scholar

Marrow Tumors

  1. Bergsageld, E.M.D.: Plasma cell myeloma. An interpretative review. Cancer (Philad.) 30, No. 6, 1588–1594 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bethge, J.F.J.: Die Ewingtumoren oder Omoblastome des Knochens. Differentialdiagnostische und kritische Erörterungen. Ergebn. Chir. Orthop. 39, 327–425 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown, T.S., Paterson, C.R., M.D.: Osteosclerosis in myeloma. J. Bone Jt Surg. 55-B, 621–623 (1973)Google Scholar
  4. Carson, C.P., Ackerman,L.V., Maltby, J.D.: Plasma cell myeloma: A clinical, pathologic, and roentgenologic review of 90 cases. Amer. J. clin. Path. 25, 849–888 (1955)Google Scholar
  5. Dahlin, D.C., Dockerty,M.B.: Amyloid and myeloma. Amer. J. Path. 26, 581–593 (1950)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dahlin, D.C., Coventry,M.D., Scanlon, P.W.: Ewing’s sarcoma. A critical analysis of 165 cases. J. Bone Jt Surg. 43 A, 185–192 (1961)Google Scholar
  7. Edeiken, J., Hodes,PJ.: Reticulum cell sarcoma (primary of bone). In: Roentgen diagnosis of diseases of bone, pp. 605–615. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1967Google Scholar
  8. Francis, K.C., Higinbotham, N.L., Coley, B.L.: Primary reticulum cell sarcoma of bone; Report of 44 cases. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 99, 143–146 (1954)Google Scholar
  9. Friedman, B., Hanoaka, H.: Round cell sarcoma of bone. A light and electron microscopic study. J. Bone Jt Surg. 53 A, 1118–1136 (1971)Google Scholar
  10. Gitlow, S.E., Bertani, L.M., Rausen, A., Gribetz, D., Dziedzig,S.W.: Diagnosis of neuroblastoma by qualitative and quantitative determination of catecholamine metabolites in urine. Cancer (Philad.) 25, 1377–1383 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hou-Jensen, K., Priori, E., Dmochowski, L.: Studies on ultrastructure of Ewing’s sarcoma of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 29, No. 2, 280–286 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ivins, J.C., Dahlin,D.C.: Malignant lymphoma (reticulum cell sarcoma) of bone. Proc. Mayo Clin. 38, 375–385 (1963)Google Scholar
  13. McCormack, L.J., Ivins,J.C., Dahlin, D.C., Johnson, E.W., Jr. : Primary reticulum-cell sarcoma of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 5, 1182–1192 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Osserman, E.F., Takatsui,K.: Plasma cell myeloma: Gamma globulin synthesis and structure. A review of biochemical and clinical data, with description of a newly recognized and related syndrome. “H-Gamma-2-Chain (Franklin’s) disease.”> Medicine 42, 385 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Parker, F., JR., Jackson,H., Jr.. Primary reticulum cell sarcoma of bone. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 68, 45–53 (1939)Google Scholar
  16. Pasmantier, M.W., Azar,H.A.: Extraskeletal spread in multiple myeloma. A review of 57 autopsied cases. Cancer (Philad.) 23, 167–174 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schajowicz, F.: Ewing’s sarcoma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone : with special reference to the histochemical demonstration of glycogen as an aid to differential diagnosis. J. Bone Jt Surg. 41 A, 349–356 (1959)Google Scholar
  18. Shoji, H., Miller,T.M.D.: Primary reticulum cell sarcoma of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 8, 1234–1244 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Snapper, I., Turner,L.B., Moscovitz, H.L.: Multiple myeloma. New York: Grune and Stratten 1953Google Scholar
  20. Steiner, P.E.: Hodgkin’s disease; the incidence, distribution, nature and possible significance of the lymphogranulomatous lesions in the bone marrow. Arch. Path. (Chicago) 36, 627–637 (1943)Google Scholar
  21. Uehlinger, E., Botsztejn, Ch., Schinz, H.R.: Ewingsarkom und Knochenretikulosarkom: Klinik, Diagnose und Differentialdiagnose. Oncologia (Basel) 1, 193–245 (1948)Google Scholar
  22. Valderrama, J.A., Bullough,P.C.: Solitary myeloma of the spine. J. Bone Jt Surg. 50B, 82–90 (1968)Google Scholar
  23. Waldenstrom, J.: The incidence and cytology of different myeloma types. Lancet 1, 1147 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wright, C.J.: Long survival in solitary plasmocytoma of bone. J. Bone Jt Surg. 43B, 467 (1961)Google Scholar

Vascular Tumors (Benign and Malignant)

  1. Cohen, J., Craig, J.M.: Multiple lymphangiectases of bone. J. Bone Jt Surg. 37A, 585–596 (1955)Google Scholar
  2. Dorfman, H.D., Steiner, G.C., Jaffe, H.L.: Vascular tumors of bone. Hum. Path. 2, 349–376 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Falkmer, S., Tilling, G.: Primary lymphangioma of bone. Acta orthop. scand. 26, 99 (1956)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Goidanich, I.F., Campanacci,M.: Vascular hamartomata and infantile angioectatic osteohyperplasia of the extremites. A study of 94 cases. J. Bone Jt Surg. 44A, 815 (1962)Google Scholar
  5. Gorham, L.W., Stout,A.P.: Massive osteolysis (acute spontaneous absorption of bone, phantom bone, disappearing bone). Its relation to hemangiomatosis. J. Bone Jt Surg. 37A, 985–1004 (1955)Google Scholar
  6. Hartmann, W.H., Stewart,F.W.: Hemangioendothelioma of bone. Unusual tumor characterized by indolent course. Cancer (Philad.) 15, 846–854 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lattes, R., Bull, D.C.: A case of glomus tumor with primary involvement of bone. Ann. Surg. 127, 187–191 (1948)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lidholm, S.O., Lindbom,A., Spjut, H.J.: Multiple capillary hemangiomas of the bones of the foot. Acta path. 51, 9–16 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Marcial Rojas, R.A.: Primary hemangiopericytoma of bone. Review of the literature and report of the first case with metastases. Cancer (Philad.) 13, 308–313 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Morgenstern, P., Westing, S.W.: Malignant hemangioendothelioma of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 23, 221–224 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Otis, J., Hunter, R.V.P., Foote, F.W., Marcove, R.C., Stewartt, W.: Haemangioendothelioma of bone. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 127, 295–305 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Rosenquist, C.J., Wolfe,D.C: Lymphangioma of bone. J. Bone Jt Surg. 50 A, 158–162 (1968)Google Scholar
  13. Seckler, S.G., Rubin, H., Rabinowitz, J.G.: Systemic cystic angiomatosis. Amer. J. Med. 37, 976–986 (1964)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sherman, R.S., Wilner,D.: The roentgen diagnosis of hemangioma of bone. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 86, 1146–1159 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Thomas, A.: Vascular tumors of bone: A pathological and clinical study of 27 cases. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 74, 777–795 (1942)Google Scholar
  16. Unni, K.K., Ivins, J.C., Beabout, J.W., Dahlin, D.C: Hemangioma, hemangiopericytoma and hemangioendothelioma of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 27, 1403–1414 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Other Connective Tissue Tumors (Benign and Malignant)

  1. Catto, M., Stevens, J.: Liposarcoma of bone. J. Path. Bact. 86, 248–253 (1963)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cunningham, M.P., Arlen, Myron. Medullary fibrosarcoma of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 21, 31–37 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dahlin, D.C., Hoover,N.W.: Desmoplastic fibroma of bone. Report of two cases. J. Amer. med. Ass. 188, 685–687 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dahlin, D.C., Ives,J.C.: Fibrosarcoma of bone. A study of 114 cases. Cancer (Philad.) 23, 35–41 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dawson, E.K.: Liposarcoma of bone. J. Path. Bact. 70, 513 (1955)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eyre-Brook, A.L., Price,C.H.G.: Fibrosarcoma of bone. Review of 50 consecutive cases from the Bristol bone tumor registry. J. Bone Jt Surg. 51B, 20–37 (1969)Google Scholar
  7. Gilmer, W.S., JR., MacEwven, G.D.: Central (medullary) fibrosarcoma of bone. J. Bone Jt Surg. 40A, 121 (1958)Google Scholar
  8. Goldman, R.L.: Primary liposarcoma of bone. Report of a case. Amer. J. clin. Path. 42, 503–508 (1964)Google Scholar
  9. Hart, J.M.D.: Intraosseous lipoma. J. Bone Jt Surg. 55-B, 624–632 (1973)Google Scholar
  10. Hutter, R.V.P., Foote, F.W., Francis, K.C., Sherman, R.S.: Primitive multipotential primary sarcoma of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 19, 1–25 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rabhan, W.N., Rosai, J.: Desmoplastic fibroma. Report of 10 cases and review of the literature. J. Bone Jt Surg. 50 A, 487–502 (1968)Google Scholar
  12. Retz, L.D.: Primary liposarcoma of bone. Report of a case and review of the literature. J. Bone Jt Surg. 43 A, 123–129 (1961)Google Scholar
  13. Ross, O.F., Hadfield, G.: Primary osteo-liposarcoma of bone (Malignant mesenchymoma). Report of a case. J. Bone Jt Surg. 50B, 639–643 (1968)Google Scholar
  14. Schajowicz, F., Cuevillas, A.R., Sllberman, F.S.: Primary malignant mesenchymoma of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 19, 1423–1428 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Smith, W.E., Fienberg, R.: Intraosseous lipoma of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 10, 1151–1152 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Other Tumors

  1. Changus, G.W., Speed, J.S., Stewart, F.W.: Malignant angioblastoma of bone. A reappraisal of adamantinoma of long bone. Cancer (Philad.) 10, 540–559 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dahlin, D.C., MacCarty,C.S.: Chordoma: a study of fifty-nine cases. Cancer (Philad.) 5, 1170–1178 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gloor, F.: Das sogenannte Adamantinom der langen Röhrenknochen. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 336, 489–502 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Heffelfinger, J., Dahlin, D., MacCarty, C.S., Bea but, M.D.: Chordomas and cartilaginous tumors at the skull base. Cancer (Philad.) 32, No. 2, 410–420 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hicks, J.D.: Synovial sarcoma of tibia. J. Path. Bact. 67, 151 (1954)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hlginbotham, N.L., Phillips, R.F., Hollon, F.W., Hustu, H.O.: Chordoma. Thirty-five year study at Memorial Hospital. Cancer (Philad.) 20, 1841–1850 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lederer, H., Sinclair,A.J.: Malignant synovioma simulating adamantinoma of the tibia. J. Path. Bact. 67, 167–168 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. MacCarty, C.S., Waugh,J.M., Coventry, M.B., O’Sullivan, D.C.: Sacrococcygeal chordomas. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 113, 551–554 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Moon, N.E.: Adamantinoma of the appendicular skeleton. Clin. Orthop. 43, 189–213 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ottolenghi, C.E., Schajowicz, F., Raffa, D.: Le kyste osseus essentiel uniloculaire. Etude clinique et anatompathologique de 123 cas. Rev. Chir. orthop. 55, 287–303 (1964)Google Scholar
  11. Schajowicz, F., Slullitel, J.: Eosinophilic granuloma of bone and its relationship to Hand-Schuller Christian and Letterer-Siwe syndromes. J. Bone Jt Surg. 55-B, No. 3, 545–565 (1973)Google Scholar
  12. Tillman, B.P., Dahlin,D.C., Lipscomb, P.R., Stewart, J.R.: Aneurysmal bone cyst: An analysis of 95 cases. Mayo Clin. Proc. 43, 478–495 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Neurogenic Tumors

  1. DeSanto, D.A., Burgess, E.: Primary and secondary neurilemmoma of bone. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 71, 454–461 (1940)Google Scholar
  2. Gross, P., Bailey,F.R., Jacox, H.W.: Primary intramedullary neurofibroma of the humerus. Arch. Path. (Chicago) 28, 716–718 (1939)Google Scholar
  3. Hart, M.S., Bascom, W.C.: Neurilemmoma involving bone. J. Bone Jt Surg. 40A, 465–468 (1958)Google Scholar
  4. Samter, T.G., Vellios, F., Shafer, W.G.: Neurilemmoma of bone. Report of 3 cases with a review of the literature. Radiology 75, 215–222 (1960)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Electron Microscopy

  1. Albores-Saavedra, J., Diaz-Gutierrez, D., Altami rano-Dimas,M.: Adamantinoma de la Tibia. Observaciones Ultraestructurales. Rev. med. Hosp. gen. Mex. 31, 241–252 (1968)Google Scholar
  2. Friedman, B., Gold, H.: Ultrastructure of Ewing’s sarcoma of bone. Cancer (Philad.) 22, 307–322 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ghadially, F.N., Mehta,P.N.: Ultrastructure of osteogenic sarcoma. Cancer (Philad.), 25, 1457–1467 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hanoaka, H., Friedman, B., Mack, R.P.: Ultrastructure and histogenesis of giant cell tumor of bone. Cancer (Philad.), 19, 1408–1423 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kempson, R.L.: Ossifying fibroma of the long bones. A light and electron microscopic study. Arch. Path. (Chicago) 82, 218–233 (1966)Google Scholar
  6. Maldonado, J.E., Brown,A.L., JR., Bayrd, E.D., Pease, G.L.: Ultrastructure of the myeloma cell. Cancer (Philad.) 19, 1613–1627 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Murad, T.M., Narasimha Murthy, M.S.: Ultrastructure of a chordoma. Cancer (Philad.) 25, 1204 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Rosai, J.: Adamantinoma of the tibia. Amer. J. clin. Path. 51, 786–792 (1969)Google Scholar
  9. Schajowicz, F., Cabrini, R.L., Simes, R.J., Klein- Szanto, A.J.P.: Ultrastructure of Chondrosarcoma. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 100, 378–386 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Spjut, H.J., Luse,S.A.: Chordoma: An electron microscopic study. Cancer (Philad.) 17, 643–656 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ueno, L.: Electron microscopic observations of giant cell tumors of bone. J. Jap. orthop. Ass. 38, 724–725 (1964)Google Scholar
  12. Wellmann, K.E.: Chondroblastoma of the scapula. A case report with ultrastructural observations. Cancer (Philad.) 24, 408–416 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Welsh, R.A., Meyer,A.T.: A histogenetic study of chondroblastoma. Cancer (Philad.) 17, 578–584 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

General References

  1. Aegerter, E., Kirkpatrick, J.A., Jr. : Orthopedic, diseases, physiology, pathology, radiology. 3rd ed., W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia 1968Google Scholar
  2. Coley, B.L.: Neoplasms of bone and related conditions : Their etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. 1949Google Scholar
  3. Dahlin, D.C.: Bone tumors, 2nd Ed., Springfield, 111., Charles C Thomas 1967Google Scholar
  4. Dominok, G.W., Knoch,H.G.: Knochengeschwülste und geschwulstähnliche Knochenerkrankungen. Jena: VEB Gustav Fischer 1971Google Scholar
  5. Fairbanks, T.: An atlas of general affections of the skeleton. Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. 1951Google Scholar
  6. Jaffe, H.L.: Tumors and tumorous conditions of the bones and joints. Philadelphia : Lea and Febiger 1958Google Scholar
  7. Jeffree, G.M., Price,C.H.G.: Bone tumors and their enzymes. J. Bone Jt Surg. 47B, 120 (1965)Google Scholar
  8. Johnson, L.C.: A general theory of bone tumors. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med. 29, 164–171 (1953)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Lichtenstein, L.: Bone tumors. 4th Ed., Saint Louis: C.V. Mosby 1971Google Scholar
  10. Mayer, L.: Malignant degeneration of so-called benign osteoblastoma. Bull. Hosp. Jt. Dis. 28, 4–13 (1967)Google Scholar
  11. Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumours : Radiological atlas of bone tumours, 1. Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Co. 1966Google Scholar
  12. Ottolenghi, C.E.: Diagnosis of orthopaedic lesions by aspiration biopsy. Results of 1,061 punctures. J. Bone Jt Surg. 37A, 443–464 (1955)Google Scholar
  13. Price, C.H.G., Ross, F.G.M.: Bone, certain aspects of neuplasia, Proceedings of the 24th Symposium of the Colston Research Society. London: Butterworths 1973Google Scholar
  14. Radiological Atlas of Bone Tumours, Vol. I and II, Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumours (ed.). The Hague : Mouton & Co 1966 and 1973Google Scholar
  15. Schajowicz, F., Ackerman,L.V., Sissons, H.A.: Histological typing of bone tumours. International histological classification of tumours. No. 6, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1972 (Bibliography)Google Scholar
  16. Schajowicz, F., Cabrini, R.L.: Histochemical studies of bone in normal and pathological conditions (with special reference to alkaline phosphatase, glycogen and mucopolysaccharides. J. Bone Jt Surg. 36B, 474 (1954)Google Scholar
  17. Schajowicz, F., Derqui, J.C.: Puncture biopsy in lesions of the locomotor system; review of results in 4,050 cases, including 941 vertebral punctures. Cancer (Philad.) 21, 531–548 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schreyvogel, R.: Benignes Osteoblastom. Schweiz. med. Wschr. 98, 1009–1013 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Spjut, H.J., Dorfman, H.D., Fechner, R.E., Ackerman, L.V.: Tumors of bone cartilage, Washington, D.C., Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (Atlas of Tumor Pathology, 2* series, fascicle 5) 1971Google Scholar
  20. Uehlinger, E.: Die pathologische Anatomie der Knochengeschwülste. Helv. Chir. Acta 20, 597 (1959); 40, 5 (1973)Google Scholar
  21. Uehlinger, E.: Pathologische Anatomie der Knochengeschwülste (unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der semimalignen Formen). Chirurg 45, 62 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fritz Schajowicz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations