Immunology: Breast Cancer

  • G. H. Heppner
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research / Fortschritte der Krebsforschung / Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 57)


Although the immunology of human breast cancer has for some time been an area of active investigation, there is still little definitive information on such basic questions as the frequency of immune reactions to breast tumor antigens, the specificity of those reactions that are detected, nor ultimately their clinical significance. The reasons for this lack of reliable information are in large measure technical. The methodology which has been more or less successfully applied to problems in animal tumor immunology has not yielded the same quality, or quantity, of data for human cancer where the necessity of working with outbred and in many respects uncontrollable populations is unavoidable. As in most other ambiguous situations, tumor immunologists tend to react to this dilemma in one of two ways. The optimists feel that the data for human cancer are basically “in the same direction” as that for animals and, consequently, the conclusions are probably similar. The pessimists feel that no amount of sound animal data will ever substitute for weak data in humans and that we might as well admit that we have come no further than BERG (1959) who correlated “lymphocytic infiltration” with favorable prognosis nearly 20 years ago.


Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Patient Human Breast Cancer Germinal Center Lymphocytic Infiltration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1976

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  • G. H. Heppner

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