The hepatic venous system collects blood brought to the liver by the hepatic artery and portal vein and transmits it to the inferior vena cava. It takes origin at the intralobular veins, which drain blood directly from the sinusoids and are located in the centrum of the lobuli (central veins). The intralobular veins enter the sublobular veins, and by progressive junction form hepatic vein branches and finally the three main hepatic veins: the right, middle and left (Fig. 1). The distribution of these main hepatic veins reflects the segmental anatomy of the liver. They are located in the intersegmental hepatic fissures and drain blood from the neighbouring segments (ELIAS etal, 1969; MICHELS, 1955).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. BERGSTRAND, I., EKMAN, C.-A., KOHLER, R.: Inferior Venacaval Obstruction in Hepatic Cirrhosis. Acta Radiol. 2, 1–8 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BIERMAN, H.R., KELLY, K.H., WHITE, L.P., COBLENTZ, A., FISHER, A.: Transhepatic Venous Catheterization and Venography. J. amer. med. Ass. 158, 1331–1334 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. BOUCHIER, I.A.D., LESSOF, L.: Primary Carcinoma of the Liver: Its Diagnosis by Radiographic Techniques. Brit. J. Radiol. 37, 3–7 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. BRINK, A.J., BOTHA, D.: Budd-Chiari Syndrome: Diagnosis by Hepatic Venography. Brit. J. Radiol., 28, 330–331 (1955)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. BRITTON, R.C., BROWN, C.H., SHIREY, E.K.: Intrahepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Cirrhosis with Chronic Ascites: Diagnosis by Hepatic Phlebography and Results of Surgical Treatment. Ann. Surg., 158, 370–382 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. BURKO, H., KLATTE, E.C.: Renewed Interest in Gases for Contrast Roentgenography. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 99, 645–659 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. CELIS, A., VILLALOBOS, M.E., DEL CASTILLO, H., ESPINOSA, J.F.: Roentgenographic Opacity of the Hepatic Circulation. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 74, 1089–1095 (1955)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. CLAIN, D., FRESTON, J., KREEL, L., SHERLOCK, S.: Clin-ical Diagnosis of the Budd-Chiari Syndrome. Amer. J. Med. 43, 544–553 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. COLLINS, J.R., VIX, V.A.: Hepatic Vein Visualization by Intravenous Carbon Dioxide Injection. Radiology 89, 864–867 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. COUTINHO, S.G., SAAD, E.A., DA SILVA, J.R.: Segmental Hepatic Angiography. Amer. J. Dig. Dis. 12, 685–695 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. DEIMER, E.: Die perkutane Hepatographie. Fortschr. Roentgenstr. 114, 84–102 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DEIMER, E.,WENZL, M.: Zur röntgenologischen Analyse des Budd-Chiari-Syndroms. Fortschr. Röntgenstr. 117, 241–249 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DOCKRAY, K.T., BURNS, R.R., MOORE, J.: Capnohepa- tography: Intravenous Retrograde Gas Angiography of Liver Veins with Carbon Dioxide. Radiology 85, 740–742 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. DOEHNER, G.A.: The Hepatic Venous System. Its Normal Roentgen Anatomy. Radiology 90, 1119–1123 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. DOEHNER, G.A.: The Hepatic Venous System. Its Pathologic Roentgen Anatomy. Radiology 90, 1124–1131 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. ELIAS, H., SHERRICK, J.C.: Morphology of the Liver. New York: Academic Press 1969Google Scholar
  17. FEINGOLD, M.L., LITWAK, R.L., GELLER, S.S., BARON, M.M.: Budd-Chiari Syndrome Caused by a Right Atrial Tumor. Arch. Intern. Med. 127, 292–295 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. FERRIS, E.J., HIPONA, F.A.,KAHN,P.C., PHILLIPS, E., SHAPIRO, J.H.: Venography of the Inferior Vena Cava and Its Branches. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 1969Google Scholar
  19. GALMARINI, D., RIQUIER, G., FASSATI, L.R., TRIVELLI- NI, G., ZANOLI, P.G.: The Value of angiographic Methods in Diagnostic Assessment of Liver Damage in Portal Hypertension. S. Afr. med. J. 43, 743–746 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. GLICKMAN, M.G., HANDEL, S.F.: Opacification of Hepatic Veins During Celiac and Hepatic Angiography. Radiology 103, 565–571 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. HABIGHORST, L.V., WELKER, H., ZEITLER, E.: Vergleichende postmortale Untersuchungen zur Leberan- giographie. Fortschr. Roentgenstr. 101, 681–701 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. HALES, M.R., SCATLIFF, J.H.: Thrombosis of the Inferior Vena Cava and Hepatic Veins (Buss-Chiari Syndrome). Ann. Intern. Med. 65, 768–780 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. HAVERLING, M.: Balloon Catheters and Their Percutaneous Insertion into the Vascular System. Acta. Radiol. 10, 209–217 (1970)Google Scholar
  24. HELANDER, C.G., LINDBOM, A.: Venography of the Inferior Vena Cava. Acta Radiol. 52, 257–268 (1959)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. HAVERLING, M.,JONSSON, L., LARSSON, L.-G., LINDBOM, A., ÖDMAN, P.: Venographic and Scintillography Demonstrations of Liver Metastases. Acta Radiol. 50, 533–542 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. HIDAYAT, M.A., WAHID, H.A.: A Study of the Vascular Changes in Bilharzic Hepatic Fibrosis and their Significance. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 132, 997–1004 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. HIPONA, F.A., FERRIS, E.J., PICK, R.: Capnocavogra- phy: A New Technic for Examination of the Inferior Vena Cava. Radiology, 92, 606–609 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. KREEL, L.: Vascular Radiology in Liver Disease. Postgrad. Med. J. 46, 19–31 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. HIPONA, F.A.,FRESTON, J.W., CLAIN, D.: Vascular Radiology in the Budd-Chiari Syndrome. Brit. J. Radiol. 40, 755–759 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. MICHELS, N.A.: Blood Supply and Anatomy of the Upper Abdominal Organs. Philadelphia: J.B. Lip- pincott 1955Google Scholar
  31. MORENO, A.H., RUZICKA, F.F., ROUSSELOT, L.M., BURCHELL, A.R., BONO, R.F., SLAFSKY, S.F., BURKE, J.H.: Functional Hepatography. Radiology 81, 65–79 (1963)Google Scholar
  32. NEY, H.R.: Die Kontrastdarstellung der Lebervenen im Röntgenbild. Fortschr. Röntgenstr. 86, 302–309 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. NEY, H.R.: Röntgenologischer Nachweis portovenöser und intervenöser Nebenschlüsse in der Leber. Acta Radiol. 49, 227–232 (1958)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. NORDENSTRöM, B.: Balloon Catheters for Percutaneous Insertion into the Vascular System. Acta. Radiol. 58, 411–416 (1962)Google Scholar
  35. NORDENSTRöM, B.,NORHAGEN, A.: Calibre of the Inferior Vena Cava in Cirrhosis of the Liver. Acta. Radiol. 6, 65–80 (1967)Google Scholar
  36. NORHAGEN, A.: Selective Angiography of the Hepatic Veins. Acta Radiol., Suppl. 221, Stockholm 1963Google Scholar
  37. PETERSEN, O., TYGSTRUP, N., WINKLER, K.: Roentgen Examination of the Inferior Vena Cava in Chronic Hepatic Disease. Acta Radiol. 55, 97–102 (1961)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. PIPER, D.W.: A Radiographic Study of the Portal and Hepatic Venous System in Cirrhosis of the Liver. Amer. J. Dig. Dis. 6, 499–510 (1961)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. POLLARD, J.J., NEBESAR, R.A.: Altered Hemodynamics in the Budd-Chiari Syndrome Demonstrated by Selective Hepatic and Selective Splenic Angiography. Radiology 89, 236–243 (1967)Google Scholar
  40. RAMSAY, G.C., BRITTON, R.C.: Intraparenchymal Angiography in the Diagnosis of Hepatic Veno-Occlu- sive Disease. Radiology 90, 716–726 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. RAPPAPORT, A.M.: Hepatic Venography. Acta Radiol. 36, 165–171 (1951)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. RAPPAPORT, A.M.,HOLMES, R.B., STOLBERG, H.O., MCINTYRE, J.L., BAIRD, R.J.: Hepatic Venography. Gastroenterology 46, 115–127 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. REUTER, S.R., REDMAN, H.C.: Gastrointestinal Angiography. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders 1972Google Scholar
  44. RIQUIER, G., GALMARINI, D., ZANOLI, P.G., FASSATI, L.R., TRIVELLINI, G.: Hepatic Phlebography in Liver Aliments. S. Afr. med. J. 43, 729–733 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. RöSCH, J., LAKIN, P.C., ANTONOVIC, R., DOTTER, C.T.: Transjugular Approach to Liver Biopsy and Transhepatic Cholangiography. Fortschr. Röntgenstr. 119, 653–661 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. RöSCH, J., ANTONOVIC, R., DOTTER, C.T.: Transjugu- lar approach to the liver, billiary system and portal circulation. Amer J. Roentgenol. 125,602–608(1975)Google Scholar
  47. RUZICKA, F.F., CARILLO, F.J., D’ALESSANDRO, D., ROSSI, P.: The Hepatic Wedge Pressure and Venogram, vs. the Intraparenchymal Liver Pressure and Venogram. Radiology 102, 253–258 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. SCHAFFNER, F., GADBOYS, H.L., SAFRAN, A.P., BARON, M.G., AUFSES, A.H. JR.: Budd-Chiari Syndrome Caused by a Web in the Inferior Vena Cava. Amer. J. Med. 42, 838–843 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. SCHIFF, L., WATSON, C.J.: Diseases of the Liver. Second Edition. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott 1963Google Scholar
  50. SCHLANT, R.C., GALAMBOS, J.T., SHUFORD, W.H., RAWLS, W.J., WINTER, T.S., EDWARDS, F.K.: The Clinical Usefulness of Wedged Hepatic Venography. Amer. J. Med. 35, 343–349 (1963)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. SEDGWICK, C.E., POULANTZAS, J.K., MCDERMOTT, W.V. JR.: Portal Hypertension. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. 1967Google Scholar
  52. SMITH, G.W., WESTGAARD, T., BJöRN-HANSEN, R.: Hepatic Venous Angiography in the Evaluation of Cirrhosis of the Liver. Ann. Surg. 173, 469–480 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. TORI, G.: Hepatic Venography in Man. Acta Radiol. 39, 89–97 (1953)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. TORI, G.,SCOTT, W.G.: Experimental Method for Visualization of the Hepatic Vein—Venous Hepatography. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 70, 242–246 (1953)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. VIAMONTE, M. JR.: Angiographic Investigations in Portal Hypertension. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 130, 37–53 (1970)Google Scholar
  56. VIAMONTE, M. JR.,WARREN, W.D., FOMON, J.J.: Liver Panangio- graphy in the Assessement of Portal Hypertension in Liver Cirrhosis. Radiol. Clin. N. Amer. 8, 147–167 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. WARREN, W.: Preoperative Assessment of Portal Hypertension. Ann. Surg. 165, 999–1012 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. RESTREPO, J.E., RESPESS, J.C., MULLER, W.H.: The Importance of Hemodynamic Studies in Management of Portal Hypertension. Ann. Surg. 158, 387–404 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josef Rösch

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations