Advertisement

Herbig-Haro Objects and T Tauri Nebulae

  • Karl-Heinz Böhm

Abstract

The visible parts of Herbig-Haro objects (Herbig, 1951; Haro, 1950,1952) appear as small nebulae with characteristic but rather unusual spectra. The fact that they occur only in regions in which T Tauri stars are present (cf. Herbig, 1969,1974) leads to the belief that the appearance of Herbig-Haro objects is somehow connected with the very early phases of stellar evolution (cf. Herbig, 1957; Strom, Grasdalen and Strom, 1974). The additional fact that Herbig-Haro objects have a spectrum almost identical to the spectrum of the small nebulae surrounding T Tauri (Herbig, 1950; Schwartz, 1973, 1974a,b) makes it even more probable that they are related to very young stars (or protostars). From this point of view it seems justified to include a discussion of Herbig-Haro objects and T Tauri nebulae in a volume on stellar envelopes. In fact, Strom, Grasdalen and Strom (1974) have suggested than the line and continuous spectrum of Herbig-Haro objects is formed in envelopes of pre-T Tauri stars. However, we have to admit that in certain respects the Herbig-Haro (HH) objects are different from other known stellar envelopes:
  1. 1)

    It is very improbable that they are excited by the ultraviolet radiation of a normal star (Böhm, 1956; Osterbrock, 1958; Böhm, Perry and Schwartz, 1973).

     
  2. 2)

    They are variable (cf. Herbig, 1957,1969) by several magnitudes with a typical time scale of the order of 5 to 10 years (or less?). This typical time is almost comparable to the characteristic recombination time in these nebulae.

     
  3. 3)

    Though they are sometimes associated with a star (e.g. Burnham’s nebula surrounding T Tauri) the objects which we usually call HH-objects do not show such a close association with a T Tauri star.

     
  4. 4)

    Their masses (∼10-3 M) and apparent sizes (diameters ∼2000 — 5000 a.u.) are fairly large for a stellar envelope.

     

Keywords

Radial Velocity Stellar Evolution Central Star Planetary Nebula Monthly Notice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aller, L.H., Liller, W.: In: Nebulae and Interstellar Matter (Ed. Middelhurst, B.M., Aller, L.H.), p. 483. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1968.Google Scholar
  2. Ambarzumian, V.A.: Comm. Burakan Obs. no. 13 (1954).Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, L., Kuhi, L.V.: In: Non-Periodic Phenomena in Variable Stars (Ed. Detre, L.). Dordrecht: Reidel 1969.Google Scholar
  4. Bohm, D., Aller, L.H.: Astrophys. J. 105, 131 (1947).MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Böhm, K.H.: Astrophys. J. 123, 379 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Böhm, K.H.: Z. Astrophys. 43, 245 (1957).ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Böhm, K.H., Perry, J.F., Schwartz R.D.: Astrophys. J. 179, 149 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Böhm, K.H., Schwartz, R.D.: Bull. A. A. S. 5, 437 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Böhm, K.H., Schwartz, R.D., Siegmund, W.A.: Astrophys. J. 193, 353 (1974a).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Böhm, K.H., Schwartz, R.D., Siegmund, W.A.: In preparation (1974b).Google Scholar
  11. Burnham, S.W.: Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 51, 94 (1890).ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Burnham, S.W.: Publ. Lick Obs. 2, 175 (1894).ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Carrasco, L., Strom, S.E., Strom, K.M.: Astrophys. J. 182, 95 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cox, D.P.: Astrophys. J. 178, 143 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frank, I.M.: Usp. Fis. Nauk 87, 189 (1965).Google Scholar
  16. Garibyan, G.M.: Soviet Phys. JETP 37, 527 (1959).Google Scholar
  17. Goodson, W.L.: Z. Astrophys. 66, 118 (1967).ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Gurzadyan, G.A.: Astron. Astrophys. 28, 147 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Gurzadyan, G.A.: Astron. Astrophys. 33, 307 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Haro, G.: Astron. J. 55, 72 (1950).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Haro, G.: Astrophys. J. 115, 572 (1952).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haro, G., Herbig, G.H.: Bol. Obs. Tonantzintla Tacubaya, no. 12 (1955).Google Scholar
  23. Haro, G., Minkowski, R.: Astron. J. 65, 490 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hebb, M.H., Menzel, D.H.: Astrophys. J. 92, 408 (1940).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Herbig, G.H.: Astrophys. J. 111, 11 (1950).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Herbig, G.H.: Astrophys. J. 113, 697 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Herbig, G.H.: In: Non-stable Stars (Ed. Herbig, G.H.), p. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1957Google Scholar
  28. Herbig, G.H.: Astron. J. 67, 645 (1962a).Google Scholar
  29. Herbig, G.H.: Adv. Astron. Astrophys. 1, 75 (1962b).Google Scholar
  30. Herbig, G.H.: In: Nonperiodic Phenomena in Variable Stars (Ed. Detre, L.), p. 75. Dordrecht: Reidel 1969.Google Scholar
  31. Herbig, G.H.: Comm. 27, IAU Inf. Bull. Var. Stars no. 832 (1973).Google Scholar
  32. Herbig, G.H.: Lick Obs. Bull., No. 658 (1974).Google Scholar
  33. Herbig, G.H., Schwartz, R.D.: Personal Communication (1974).Google Scholar
  34. Hummer, D.G., Seaton, M.J.: Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 125, 431 (1963).ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Hummer, D.G., Seaton, M.J.: Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 127, 217 (1964).ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Kuhi, L.V.: Astrophys. J. 140, 1409 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Larson, R.B.: Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 145, 271 (1969a).ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Larson, R.B.: Monthly Notices roy. Astron. Soc. 145, 297 (1969b).ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Larson, R.B.: Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 157, 121 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Magnan, C., Schatzman, E.: Compt. Rend. 260, 6289 (1965).Google Scholar
  41. Mendoza, E.E.: Mém. Soc. Roy. Sci., Cinq. Ser. 19, 305 (1970) (discussion remark).Google Scholar
  42. Menzel, D.H.: Selected Papers on Physical Processes in Ionized Plasmas, New York: Dover 1962.Google Scholar
  43. Miller, J.S.: Astrophys. J. 154, L 57 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Osterbrock, D.E.: Publ. Soc. Astron. Pacific 70, 399 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Osterbrock, D.E., Dufour, R.J.: Astrophys. J. 185, 441 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Osterbrock, D.E., Schwartz, R.D.: Personal Communication 1974.Google Scholar
  47. Schwartz, R.D.: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle 1973.Google Scholar
  48. Schwartz, R.D.: Astrophys. J. 191, 419 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schwartz, R.D.: Astrophys. J. 195, 631 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Seaton, M.J.: Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 114, 154 (1954).ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Seaton, M.J.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 30, 979 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Seaton, M.J.: Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 132, 113 (1966).ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Strom, K.M., Strom, S.E., Grasdalen, G.L.: Astrophys. J. 187, 83 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Strom, K.M., Strom, S.E., Kinman, T.D.: Astrophys. J. (Letters) 191, L 93 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Strom, S.E., Grasdalen, G.L., Strom, K.M.: Astrophys. J. (in press) (1974).Google Scholar
  56. Thackeray, A.D.: Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 135, 51 (1967).ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. Unsöld, A.: Physik der Sternatmosphären. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1955, 1968.MATHGoogle Scholar
  58. Whitford, A.E.: Astron. J. 63, 201 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wurm, K.: Die planetarischen Nebel. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 1951.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl-Heinz Böhm

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations