The Biosphere and Man

  • Robert H. Whittaker
  • Gene E. Likens
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 14)


Preceding chapters in this volume have dealt with the history of productivity study, methods of measurement, patterns of productivity in different kinds of communities, and some applications in research. Two topics remain: the characterization of the biosphere as a whole in terms of productivity and related properties, and consideration of man’s relationship to the biosphere. The first topic is the focus of the book as a whole, and it is summarized here as well as in Chapters 10 and 13. The second topic is inescapably problematic; we can offer only a viewpoint on it.


Biomass biosphere characteristics chlorophyll global carrying capacity human populations leaf surface areas man’s harvest primary production stability 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bazilevich, N. I., L. Ye. Rodin, and N. N. Rozov. 1971. Geographical aspects of biological productivity. Sov. Geogr. Rev. Transl. 12:293–317. (Transl. from Mat. V. Syezda Geogr. Obshch. USSR, Leningrad, 1970.)Google Scholar
  2. Bolin, B. (ed.). 1971. Air Pollution Across National Boundaries: The Impact on the Environment of Sulfur in Air and Precipitation, 96 pp. (Rep. of the Swedish Preparatory Committee for the U.N. Conference on Human Environment.) Stockholm: Norstedt.Google Scholar
  3. Bronfenbrenner, U. 1970. Two Worlds of Childhood, U.S. and U.S.S.R., 190 pp. New York: Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, L. R. 1970. Human food production as a process in the biosphere.Scient. Amer. 223(3): 160–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark, Colin. 1967. Population Growth and Land Use, 406 pp. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  6. Cloud, P. 1973. Is there intelligent life on earth? In Carbon and the Biosphere, G. M. Woodwell and E. V. Pecan, eds. Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 24:265–280. Springfield, Virginia: Natl. Tech. Inform. Serv. (CONF-720510).Google Scholar
  7. Connell, K. H. 1941. The Population of Ireland 1750–1845, 293 pp. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  8. Cook, E. 1971. The flow of energy in an industrial society. Scient. Amer. 224(3): 134–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ——. 1972. Energy for millenium three. Technol. Rev. 75(2): 16–23.Google Scholar
  10. Crowe, B. L. 1969. The tragedy of the commons revisited. Science 166:1103–1107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Doxiadis, C. A. 1970. Ekistics, the science of human settlements. Science 170:393–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Durand, J. D. 1960. The population statistics of China, a.D. 2–1953. Population Studies 13:209–256.Google Scholar
  13. Ehrlich, P. R., and A. H. Ehrlich. 1970. Population, Resources, Environment: Issues in Human Ecology, 383 pp. San Francisco, California: Freeman.Google Scholar
  14. ——, and J. P. Holdren. 1969. Populations and panaceas, a technological perspective. Bioscience 19:1065–1071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. FAO. 1970. Provisional Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development, 2 vols., 672 pp. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  16. ——. 1971a. Production Yearbook, 1970, Vol. 24, 822 pp. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  17. ——. 1971b. Yearbook of Fishery Statistics, 1970, Vol. 30:Catches and Landings, 469 pp. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  18. ——. 1971c. Yearbook of Forest Products, 1969–70, 230 pp. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Google Scholar
  19. Forrester, J. W. 1970. World Dynamics, 142 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Wright Allen.Google Scholar
  20. Goldsmith, E. R. D., R. Allen, M. Allaby, J. Davoll, and S. Lawrence. 1972. A blueprint for survival. Ecologist 2(1): 1–43; also Congressional Record H209–232, Jan. 24, 1972.Google Scholar
  21. Golley, F. B. 1972. Energy flux in ecosystems. In Ecosystem Structure and Function, J. A. Wiens, ed., Corvallis: Oregon State Univ. Ann. Biol. Colloq. 31:69–90.Google Scholar
  22. Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162:1243–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Heggestad, H. E., and E. F. Darley. 1969. Plants as indicators of the air pollutants ozone and PAN. (French and German summs.). In Air Pollution: Proc. 1st European Congr. on Influence of Air Pollution on Plants and Animals, Wageningen 1968, pp. 329–335. Wageningen: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation.Google Scholar
  24. Heilbroner, R. L. 1974. An Inquiry into the Human Prospect, 150 pp. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  25. Hollingsworth, T. H. 1969. Historical Demography, 448 pp. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Univ.Google Scholar
  26. Ho, Ping-Ti. 1959. Studies on the Population of China, 1368–1953, 341 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ.Google Scholar
  27. Holt, S. J. 1969. The food resources of the ocean. Scient. Amer. 221 (3): 178–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Howell, R. K., and D. F. Kremer. 1970. Alfalfa yields as influenced by air quality. Phytopathology 60:1297.Google Scholar
  29. Hubbert, M. K. 1969. Energy resources. InResources and Man, a Study and Recommendations, by the Committee on Resources and Man, P. Cloud, chairman, pp. 157–242. Washington: National Academysof Sciences; and San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  30. —— 1971. The energy resources of the earth. Scient. Amer. 224(3):60–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hulett, H. R. 1970. Optimum world population. Bioscience 20:160–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Istock, C. 1969. A corollary to the dismal theorem. Bioscience 19:1079–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Koblentz-Mishke, O. J., V. V. Volkovinsky, and J. G. Kabanova. 1970. Plankton primary production of the world ocean. In Scientific Exploration of the South Pacific, W. S. Wooster, ed., pp. 183–193. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  34. Kovda, V. A. 1971. The problem of biological and economic productivity of the earth’s land areas. Sov. Geogr.: Rev. Transl. 12:6–23.Google Scholar
  35. Lieth, H. 1973. Primary production: terrestrial ecosystems. Human Ecol. 1:303–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. —— 1975. The primary productivity in ecosystems. Comparative analysis of global patterns. In Unifying Concepts in Ecology, W. H. Van Dobben, and R. H. Lowe-McConnell, eds. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk (in press).Google Scholar
  37. Likens, G. E., F. H. Bormann, and N. M. Johnson. 1972. Acid rain.Environment 14(2):33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Malthus, T. R. 1798. First Essay on Population. Reprinted with notes by J. Bonar, 1926, 396 pp. London: Royal Economic Society and New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  39. Meadows, D. H., D. L. Meadows, J. Randers, and W. W. Behrens III. 1972. The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome’s Project on the Predicament of Mankind, 205 pp. New York: Universe.Google Scholar
  40. Miller, P. R. 1969. Air pollution and the forests of California.Calif. Air Envir. 1 (4): 1–3.Google Scholar
  41. Olson, J. S. 1970. Carbon cycles and temperate woodlands. In Analysis of Temperate Forest Ecosystems, D. E. Reichle, ed., Ecological Studies 1:226–241. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  42. Piatt, J. 1969. What we must do. Science 166:1115–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Reinhard, M., A. Armengaud, and J. Dupaquier. 1968. Histoire générale de la population mondiale, 708 pp. Paris: Montchrestien.Google Scholar
  44. Rodin, L. E., N. I. Bazilevich, and N. N. Rozov. 1975. Productivity of the world’s main ecosystems. In Productivity of the World Ecosystems: Proc. Seattle Symp. 1974, D. E. Reichle, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. (In press). Google Scholar
  45. Ryther, J. H. 1969. Photosynthesis and fish production in the sea. Science 166:72–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. SCEP. 1970. Man’s Impact on the Global Environment: Report of the Study of Critical Environmental Problems (SCEP), 319 pp. Cambridge and London: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  47. Steinhart, J. S., and C. E. Steinhart. 1974. Energy use in the U.S. food system. Science 184:307–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. TIE. 1972. Man in the Living Environment: Report of the Workshop on Global Ecological Problems, 267 pp. Madison, Wisconsin: The Institute of Ecology and Univ. Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  49. Whittaker, R. H. 1966. Forest dimensions and production in the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecology 47:103–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. ——. 1970. Communities and Ecosystems, 162 pp. New York: Macmillan; see also 2nd ed., 1975, 385 pp.Google Scholar
  51. ——, and G. E. Likens. 1973a. Carbon in the biota. In Carbon and the Biosphere, G. M. Woodwell and E. V. Pecan, eds. BrookhaveH Symp. Biol. 24:281–302. Springfield, Virginia: Natl. Tech. Inform. Serv. (CONF-720510).Google Scholar
  52. ——, and G. E. Likens. 1973b. Primary production: The biosphere and man. Human Ecol. 1:357–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. ——, and G. M. Woodwell. 1971. Measurement of net primary production of forests. (French summ.) In Productivity of Forest Ecosystems: Proc. Brussels Symp. 1969. P. Duvigneaud, ed., Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 4: 159–175. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  54. ——. and G. M. Woodwell. 1972. Evolution of natural communities. In Ecosystern Structure and Function, J. A. Wiens, ed. Corvallis: Oregon State Univ. Ann. Biol Colloq. 31:137–159.Google Scholar
  55. ——, F. H. Bormann, G. E. Likens, and T. G. Siccama. 1974. The Hubbard Brook ecosystem study: Forest biomass and production. Ecol. Monogr. 44:233–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Woodwell, G. M., P. H. Rich, and C. A. S. Hall. 1973. Carbon in estuaries. In Carbon and the Biosphere, G. M. Woodwell and E. V. Pecan, eds.Brookhaven Symp. Biol 24:221–240. Springfield, Virginia: Natl. Tech. Inform. Serv. (CONF-720510).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert H. Whittaker
  • Gene E. Likens

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations