Zusammenfassung

Die Androgene haben auf den Gesundheitszustand des Mannes, auf sein Verhalten und Befinden den allergrößten Einfluß. Störungen der Androgensekretion erzeugen tiefgreifende Veränderungen an zahlreichen Organen, an vielen Funktionen, vor allem aber an der Persönlichkeit des Mannes. Es kann nicht versucht werden, in diesem Kapitel einen auch nur kurzen Abriß der Symptomatologie der Androgeninsuffizienz beim Menschen zu geben, er könnte nur oberflächlich sein. Den Symptomen der gestörten Androgensekretion und ihrer Behandlung ist in allen Lehrbüchern der Endokrinologie ein breiter Platz eingeräumt. Was man in den endokrinologischen Lehrbüchern nicht findet, ist eine ausführliche Besprechung der beim Menschen vorhandenen Androgene selbst. Hier soll abgehandelt werden, welche Androgene vorkommen, in welcher Menge sie produziert werden, wo sie entstehen und wohin sie verschwinden, dies alles aber nicht unter vorwiegend biochemischem Aspekt, sondern um das theoretische Verständnis für die Wirkungen der Androgene beim Menschen zu fördern. Die Diagnostik und Therapie selbst stehen in den Lehrbüchern der Endokrinologie. Dem speziellen Teil ist ein Abschnitt über die allgemeine Bedeutung der Androgene für die Geschlechts- differenzierung des Menschen vorangestellt.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Abraham, G.E., Buster, J.E., Kyle, F.W., Corrales, P.C., Teller, B.C.: Radioimmunoassay of plasma Pregnenolone, 17-Hydroxypregnenolone and Dehydroepiandrosterone under various physiological conditions. J. clin. Endocr. 37, 140 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alford, F.P., Baker, H.W.G., Burger, H.G., Kretser, D.M., Hudson, B., Johns, M.W., Masterton, J. P., Patel, Y.C., Rennie, G.C.: Temporal patterns of integrated plasma hormone levels during sleep and wakefulness. II. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Testosterone and Estradiol. J. clin. Endocr. 37, 848 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, D.O.: Clin. chim. Acta 29, 513 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Apostolakis, M., Schmidt, H.: Testosterone excretion in psychiatrie and organic sexual disorders. Testosterone, p. 197. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  5. August, G.P., Tkachuk, M., Grumbach, M.M.: Plasma Testosterone-Binding Affinity and Testosterone in Umbilical Cord Plasma, Late Pregnancy, Prepubertal Children and Adults. J. clin. Endocr. 29, 891 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bahner, F.: Die allgemeine Konstitution des weiblichen Organismus, ihre Entwicklung und ihre Störungen. In: Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1969.Google Scholar
  7. Bahner, F., Schwarz, G.: Congenitale Nebennierenrindenhyperplasie beim Mann mit normaler Keimdrüsenfunktion und Fertilität. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 38, 236 (1961).Google Scholar
  8. Bahner, F., Schwarz, G.: Androgenresistenz im Eiweißstoffwechsel bei testiculärer Feminisierung. 8. Symp. Dtsch. Ges. Endokr., S. 314. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1962.Google Scholar
  9. Baird, D.T., Horton, R., Longcope, C., Tait, J.F.: Steroid dynamics under steadystate conditions. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 25, 611 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bardin, C., Lipsett, M.B.: Steroids 9, 71 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bardin, C.W., Lipsett, M.B.: Testosterone and androstendione production and interconversion rates in hirsute women. Testosterone. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  12. Bayard, F., Louvet, J.P., Thejssens, J.L., Thouvenot, J.P., Boulard, CL.: Testosterone and 17β-Oestradiol production rate in the aging man. Acta endocr. Suppl. 177, 121 (1973).Google Scholar
  13. Beaulieu, E.E.: Studies of conjugated 17-Ketosteroids in a case of adrenal tumor. J. clin. Endocr. 22, 501 (1962).Google Scholar
  14. Beaulietj, E.E.: On the metabolism of testosterone and its compartmentalization. Testosterone, p. 68. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  15. Bird, C.E., Choong, A., Knight, L., Clark, A.F.: Kinetics of 5a-Androstane-3a, 17β -diol Metabolism in Normal Men and Women. J. clin. Endocr. 38, 372 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bloch, E.: Metabolism of 4–14C-Progesterone by human fetal testis and ovaries. Endocrinology 74, 833 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bodenheimer, S., Winter, J.S.D., Faiman, C.: Diurnal Rhythms of Serum Gonadotropins, Testosterone, Estradiol and Cortisol in blind men. J. Clin. Endocr. 37, 472 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brooks, R.V., Jeffcoate, S.L., London, D.R., Trunty, F.T.G., Smith, P.M.: Studies of ovarian androgen secretion. Proc. II. Symp. Steroid Hormones Exc. Med. Found., p. 108, 1966.Google Scholar
  19. Brooks, R. W.: A method for the simultaneous estimation of testosterone and epitestosterone in urine. Steroids 4, 117 (1964).Google Scholar
  20. Brownie, A.C., Van Der Molen, H. J., Nishizawa, E.E., Eik-Nes, K.B.: Determination of testosterone in human peripheral blood using gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture detection. II. Int. Congr. Endocr. Exc. Med. Found., p. 279, 1964.Google Scholar
  21. Bruchovsky, N., Wilson, J.D.: The intranuclear binding of testosterone and 5α-androstane- 17/ β -ol-3-one by rat prostate. J. biol. Chem. 243, 5953 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bullock, L.P., Bardin, C.W.: Defective Androgen Receptors in testicular féminisation. Acta endocr. Suppl. 177, 226 (1973).Google Scholar
  23. Burger, H.G., Kent, J.R., Kellie, A.E.: Determination of testosterone in human peripheral and adrenal venous plasma. J. clin. Endocr. 24, 432 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Camacho, A.M., Migeon, C.J.: Isolation, identification and quantitation of testosterone in urine of normal adults and in patients with endocrine disorders. J. clin. Endocr. 23, 301 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Camacho, A.M., Migeon, C.L.: Testosterone excretion and production rate in normal adults and in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasie. J. clin. Endocr. 26, 893 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Capell, P.T., Paulsen, C.A., Derleth, D., Skoglund, R., Plymate, S.: The effect of short- term Testosterone administration on serum FSH, LH and Testosterone levels: evidence for selective abnormality in LH control in patients with Klinefelter’s Syndrome. J. clin. Endocr. 37, 752 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Casey, J.H., Nabarro, J.D.N.: Plasma testosterone in idiopathic hirsutism, and the changes produced by adrenal and ovarian stimulation and suppression. J. clin. Endocr. 27, 1431 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chapdelaine, A., Macdonald, P.C., Gonzalez, O., Gurpide, E., Van De Wlele, R.L., Lieberman, S.: Studies on the secretion and Interconversion of the androgens. IV. Quantitative results in a normal man whose gonadel and adrenal function were altered experimentally. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 1569 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Christiansen, P.: Acta endocr. 71, 454 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohn, G.L., Bondy, P.K., Castiglione, C.: J. clin, Invest. 40, 400 (1961).Google Scholar
  31. Collins, W.P., Forleo, R., Lefebure, Y., Sommerville, I.F.: The transformation of isotopically labelled steroid substrates by the testicular tissue of patients with the femine type of male pseudohermaphroditism. Androgens. Exc. Med. Found., p. 120, 1966.Google Scholar
  32. Coppage, W.S., Cooner, A.E.: Testosterone in human plasma. New Engl. J. Med. 273, 902 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dalzell, D., El Attar, T.M.A.: Excretion of Testosterone, Epitestosterone and Androstendione in Pre-adolescent and Adolescent Children. J. clin. Endocr. 36, 1237 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Davis, T.E., Lipsett, M.B., Korenman, S.G.: Suppression of testosterone production by physiologic doses of 2-alpha-methyldehydrotestosterone propionate. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 476 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Degenhardt, H. J., Visser, H.K. A., Wilmink, R., Frankena, L.: Production and excretion of testosterone in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and precocious puberty. Proc. II. Symp. Steroid Hormones. Exc. Med. Found., p. 81, 1966.Google Scholar
  36. De Lacerda, L Kowarski, A., Johanson, A., Athanasion, R., Migeon, C.J.: Integrated concentration and eircadian variation of Plasma Testosterone in normal men. J. clin. Endocr. 37, 366 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Demisch, K., Magnet, W., Neubauer, M., Schoffling, K.: Studies about, unconjugated Androstenediol in human peripheral Plasma. J. clin. Endocr. 37, 129 (1973 a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Demisch, K., Neubauer, M., Magnet, W., Ehlers, E., Schöffling, K.: A combined Radioimmuno-Proteinbinding assay for the simultaneous determination of testosterone, 3β, 17β -dihy dr oxy - Androst-5 - ene and 5a-Dihydrotestosterone and its clinical application. Acta endocr. Suppl. 177, 171 (1973b).Google Scholar
  39. De Moor, P., Heyns, W.: Gasehromatographic determination of dehydroepiandrosteronesul- fat and androsterone sulfate in human plasma. Androgens. Exc. Med. Found., p. 54, 1966.Google Scholar
  40. Desphande, N., Wang, D.Y., Bulbrook, R.D., Mcmilland, M.: Steroids 6, 437 (1965).Google Scholar
  41. Dignam, W.J., Pion, R.J., Lamb, E.J., Simmer, H.H.: Plasma androgens in women. II. Patients with polycystic ovaries and hirsutism. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 45, 254 (1964).Google Scholar
  42. Doerr, P., Pirke, K.M.: Influence of male senescence on plasma Oestradiol, Testosterone, and binding capacity of Testosterone-binding Globulin. Acta endocr. Suppl. 177, 123 (1973).Google Scholar
  43. Eberlein, W.R., Winter, J., Rosenfeld, R.L.: The Androgens. In: Hormones in Blood, Vol. 2, p. 187, 2nd ed. Academic PressHBK 1967.Google Scholar
  44. Etinger, B., Goldfield, E.B., Burrill, K.C., Werder, K., Forsham, P.H.: Plasma Testerone Stimulation-Suppression Dynamics in Hirsute Women, correlation with long- term therapy. Am. J. of Med. 54, 195 (1973).Google Scholar
  45. Finkelstein, M., Forchielli, E., Dorfman, R.J.: Estimation of testosterone in human plasma. J. clin. Endocr. 21, 98 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Forchielli, E., Sorcini, S., Nightingale, M.S., Brust, N., Dorfman, R.I., Perloff, W.H., Jacobson, G.: Testosterone in human plasma. Analyt. Biochem. 5, 416 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Forest, M.G., Rivarola, M.A., Migeon, C.J.: Percentage binding of testosterone, andro- stenedione and dehydroisoandrosterone in human plasma. Steroids 12, 323 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Forest, M.G., Ances, I.G., Tapper, A. J., Migeon, C. J.: Percentage binding of Testosterone, Androstenedione and Dehydroisoandrosterone in Plasma at the time of Delivery. J. clin. Endocr. 32, 417 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Forest, M.G., Cathiard, A.M., Bertrand, J.A.: Total and unbound Testosterone levels in the Newborn and in normal and hypogondal Children: use of a sensitive Radioimmunoassay for Testosterone. J. clin. Endocr. 36, 1132 (1973a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Forest, M.G., Cathiard, A.M., Bertrand, J. A.: Evidence of Testicular Activity in Early Infancy. J. din. Endocr. 37, 148 (1973b).Google Scholar
  51. Forti, G., Fiorelli, G., Pazzagli, M., Serio, M.: Determination of Testosterone in peripheral and spermatic venous plasma by a competitive protein binding method. The endocrine Function of the Testis, Vol. I, p. 105. New York and London: Academic Press 1973.Google Scholar
  52. Frasier, S.D., Gafford, F., Horton, R.: Plasma androgens in Childhood and Adolescene. J. clin. Endocr. 29, 1404 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Frasier, S.D., Horton, R.: Steroids 8, 777 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. French, F.S., Bagett, B., Van Wyk, J. J., Talbert, L.M., Hubbard, W.R., Johnston, F.R., Waver, R.P., Forchielli, E., Rao, G.R., Sarda, J.R.: Testicular feminization: Clinical, morphological and biochemical studies. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 661 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. French, F.S., Van Wyk, J. J., Bagett, B., Easterling, W.E., Talbert, L.M., Johnston, F.R., Forchielli, E., Dey, A.C.: Further evidence of a target organ defect in the syndrome of testicular feminization. J. clin. Endocr. 26, 493 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Friedman, S., Goldfien, A.: Hypothalamic-gonadal feedback in testicular feminisation. Acta endocr. Suppl. 177, 230 (1973).Google Scholar
  57. Furuyama, S., Mayes, D.M., Nugent, C.A.: Steroids 16, 415 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Futterweil, W., Mcniven, M.L., Guerra-Garcia, R., Gebree, N., Drosdowsky, M., Siegel, G.L., Soffer, L.J., Rosenthal, I.M., Dorfman, R.J.: Testosterone in human urine. Steroids 4, 137 (1964).Google Scholar
  59. Gandy, H.M., Peterson, R.E.: Measurement of testosterone an 17-Ketosteroids in plasma by the double isotope delution derivative technique. J. clin. Endocr. 28, 949 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Geisthövel, W., Niedergerke, U, Morgner, K.D., Wilms, B., Mitzkat, H.J.: Temporal variations in the concentration of plasma testosterone and the hormonal response to HCG in male diabetics. Acta endocr. Suppl. 177, 120 (1973).Google Scholar
  61. Gerhards, E., Nieuweboer, B., Richter, E.: Über Alkyl-substituierte Steroide. V. Testo- steron-Ausscheidung beim Mann nach oraler Verabreichung von 1 a-Methyl -5a-androstan- 17β-ol-3-on (Mesterolon) and 17a-Methyl-androst-4-en-17β -ol-3-on (17a-Methyltestosteron). Drug Research 19, 765 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gebree, N.B., Forchielli, E., Strauss, J.S., Pochi, P.E., Dorfman, R.I.: Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 119, 1019 (1965).Google Scholar
  63. Goebelsman, U, Horton, R., Mestman, J.H., Arce, J. J., Nagata, Y., Nakamura, R.M., Thorneycroft, IH., Mishell, D.R.: Male Pseudohermaphroditism due to testicular 17β -Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency. J. clin. Endocr. 36; 867 (1973).Google Scholar
  64. Goldfien, A., Jones, J., Yannone, M.E., White, B.: In: M.B. LIPSETT (Ed.). Gas Chromatography of steroids in biological fluids. New York: Plenum Press 1965.Google Scholar
  65. Greenblatt, R.B. (Ed.): The hirsute female. Springfield/Ill.: C.C. Thomas 1965.Google Scholar
  66. Guerrero, R., Brenner, P.F., Cekan, Z., Hagenfeldt, Diczfalusy, E.: Simultaneous Radioimmunoassay of six steroids in plasma. 2. Unconjugated steroid levels in men and menstruating women. Acta endocr. Suppl. 177, 35 (1973).Google Scholar
  67. Gupta, D., Rager, K., Rapp, D., Pfister, G., Vogt, W.: Sexual immaturity and drug response. Studies on in vitro androgen bioconversion by rat testes. Acta endocr. Suppl. 177, 343 (1973).Google Scholar
  68. Hallberg, M.C., Zorn, E.M., Wieland, R.G.: Steroids 12, 241 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hamilton, J.B., Terada, H.: Interdependence of genetics, aging, and endocrine factors in hirsutism. In: The hirsute female. R.B. Greenblatt (Ed.) p. 20. Springfield/Ill.: C.C. Thomas 1965.Google Scholar
  70. Harkness, R.A.: Diskussionsbemerkimg zu MIGEON u. Mitarb. Testosterone, S. 209. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  71. Harkness, R.A., Ismail, A. A. A., Beverddge, G.W., Powel, E.W.: Testosterone Excretion in Acne vulgaris. Testosterone, p. 192. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  72. Heyns, W., De Moor, P.: Unconjugated androgens in plasma (different from Testosterone) as studied by competitive protein binding. Ann. Endoer. (Paris) 31, 811 (1970).Google Scholar
  73. Holzmann, K., Runnebaum, B., Bahner, F., Zander, J.: Ausscheidung von Testosteron und Epitestosteron bei einem ektopischen ACTH-Syndrom. 13. Symp. Dtsch. Ges. Endokr., S. 305. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1968.Google Scholar
  74. Horn, H., Ben-Uzilio, R., Finkelstein, M.: A Radio-Enzymatic Method for Estimation of Testosterone in Human Blood and Urine. Steroid Lipids Res. 3, 101 (1972).Google Scholar
  75. Horton, R.: Estimation of androstendione in human peripheral blood with 35S-thiosemicar- bazide. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 1237 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Horton, R.: Androgen dynamics in women with virilization. Testosterone, p. 220. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  77. Horton, R., Rosner, J.M., Forsham, P.H.: Urinary excretion pattern of injected H3-testo- sterone. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 114, 400 (1963).Google Scholar
  78. Horton, R., Shinsako, J., Forsham, T.H.: Testosterone production and metabolic clearance rates with volumes of distribution in normal adult men and women. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 48, 446 (1965).Google Scholar
  79. Horton, R., Tait, J.F.: The use of 35S-thiosemicarbazide for the estimation of steroids in plasma, with particular reference to androstendione in peripheral plasma. Proc. II. Int. Congr. Endocr. Exc. Med. Found. Lond 1964, p. 262.Google Scholar
  80. Horton, R., Tait, J.F.: In vivo studies of steroid dynamics. Androstendione and testosterone. Proc. II. Symp. Steroid Hormones. Exc. Med. Found., p. 199, 1966.Google Scholar
  81. Horton, R., Tait, J.F.: Androstendioneproduction and interconversion rates measured in peripheral blood and studies on the possible site of its conversion to testosterone. J. clin. Invest. 45, 301 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Horton, R., Tait, J.F.: In vivo conversion of dehydroisoandrosteron to plasma androstendione and testosterone in man. J. clin. Endocr. 27, 79 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hudson, B., Coghlan, J.P.: Clinical Endocrinology II. Ed. by ASTWOOD and CASSIDY, p. 552. New York-London: Grune and Stratton 1968.Google Scholar
  84. Hudson, B., Coghlan, J.P., Dulmanis, A.: Testicular function in man. Ciba Found. Coll., Vol. 16, p. 140, 1967.Google Scholar
  85. Hudson, B., Coghlan, J.P., Dulmanis, A., Wintour, M., Ekkel, J.: The estimation of testosterone in biological fluids. I. Testosterone in plasma. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sei. 41, 235 (1963).Google Scholar
  86. Ibayashi, H., Nakamura, M., Murakama, S., Kekikawa, T., Tanioka, T., Nokoo, K.: The determination of urinary testosterone using thin layer and gasehromatography. Steroids 3, 559 (1964).Google Scholar
  87. Ismail, A.A., Niswender, G.D., Midgley, A.R.: Radioimmunoassay of Testosteron without Chromatography. J. clin. Endocr. 34, 177 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ismail, A.A.A., Harkness, R.A., Loraine, J.A.: Observations on urinary testosterone excretion during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. Testosterone, p. 211. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  89. Ito, T., Horton, R.: Dihydrotestosteron in human peripheral plasma. J. clin. Endocr. 31, 362 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Jirasek, J.E.: The relationship between the structure of the testis and differentiation of the external genitalia and phenotype in man. Ciba Coll. Endocr. 16, 3 (1967).Google Scholar
  91. Judd, H.L., Parker, D.C., Silver, T.S., Yen, S.S.C.: The Nocturnal Rise of Plasma Testosterone in Pubertal Boys. J. clin. Endocr. 38, 710 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Karl, H. J., Wiedemann, M., Raith, L.: Produktion und Stoffwechsel von Corticosteroiden und Androgenen bei der Leberzirrhose. Klin. Wschr. 49, 340 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kato, T., Horton, R.: Studies of testosterone binding globulin. J. clin. Endocr. 28, 1160 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kent, J.R., Acone, A.B.: Plasma testosterone levels and aging in males. Androgens. Proc. II. Symp. Steroid Hormones. Exc. Med. Found., p. 31, 1966.Google Scholar
  95. Kinotjchi, T., Pages, L., Horton, R.: A specific radioimmunoassay for testosterone in peripheral plasma. J. Lab. clin. Med. 82, 309 (1973).Google Scholar
  96. Kirschner, M.A., Coffmann, G.D.: J. clin. Endocr. 28, 1347 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kirschner, M.A., Lipsett, M.B., Collins, D.R.: Plasma Ketosteroids and testosterone in man: Study of the pituitary-testicular axis. J. clin. Invest. 44, 657 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kirschner, M.A., Sinahamahapatra, S., Zucker, I. R., Loriaux, L., Nieschlag, E.: The Production, Origin and Role of Dehydroepiandrosterone and zl5-Androstenediol as Androgen Prohormones in Hirsute Women. J. clin. Endocr. 37, 183 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Knorr, D.: Über die Ausscheidung von freiem und glucuronsäure-gebundenem Testosteron im Kindes- und Reifungsalter. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 54, 215 (1967).Google Scholar
  100. Knorr, D.: Testosterone excretion in boys treated with HCG for cryptorchidism. Testosterone, p. 190. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  101. Kobayashi, T., Lobotzky, J., Lloyd, C.W.: Plasma testosterone and urinary 17-Ketoste- roids in Japanese and Occidentals. J. clin. Endocr. 26, 610 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kolodny, C., Jacobs, S.L., Masters, H.W., Toro, G., Daughadey, H.: Lancet 2: 18–20, July 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Korenman, S.G., Kirschner, M.A., Lipsett, M.B.: Testosteronproduction in normal and virilized women and in women with the Stein-Leventhal-syndrome or idiopathic hirsutism. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 198 (1965).Google Scholar
  104. Korenman, S.G., Lipsett, M.B.: Is testosterone glucuroniside uniquely derived from plasma testosterone? J. clin. Invest. 43, 2125 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lamb, E.J., Dignam, W.J., Pion, R.J., Simmer, H.H.: Plasma androgens in women. I. Normal and non-hirsute femals eophorectomized and adrenalectomized patients. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 45, 243 (1964).Google Scholar
  106. Lim, N.Y., Brooks, R.V.: Steroids 6, 561 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lim, N. Y., Dingman, J.F.: Measurement of testosterone excretion an and production rate by glass paper chromatography. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 563 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Lipsett, M.B., Bardin, C.W.: Double isotope derivative of plasma testosterone and andro- stendione. Testosterone, p. 9. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  109. Lipsett, M.B., Wilson, H., Kirschner, M.A., Korenman, S.G., Fishman, L.H., Sarfaty, G.A., Bardin, C.W.: Studies on Leydig cell physiology and pathology; secretion and metabolism of testosterone. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 22, 245 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Littmann, K.-P.: Der Androgenstoffweehsel bei Lebererkrankungen. Internist (Berl.) 14, 265 (1973).Google Scholar
  111. Lloyd, C.W., Lobotzky, J., Segre, E.J., Kobayashi, T., Taymor, M.L., Batt, R.E.: Plasma testosterone and urinary 17-Ketosteroids in women with hirsutism and polycystic ovaries. J. clin. Endocr. 26, 314 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lobotzky, J., Wyss, H., Segre, E., Lloyd, C.W.: Plasma testosterone in the normal women. J. clin. Endocr. 24, 1261 (1964).Google Scholar
  113. Loraine, J.A.: Diskussionsbemerkung zu TAMM U. Mitarb. Testosterone, p. 186. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  114. Macdonald, P.C., Chapdelaine, A., Gonzalez, O., Gurpide, E., Van De Wiele, R.G., Lieberman, S.: Studies on the secretion and interconversion of the androgens. III. Results obtained after the injection of several radioactiv C19-steroids, single or as mixtures. J. clinc. Endocr. 25, 1557 (1965).Google Scholar
  115. Maeda, R., Okamoto, M., Wegienka, L.C., Forsham, P.F.: Steroids, 13, 83 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Mahesh, Y.B., Greenblatt, R.B.: The in vivo conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione to testosterone. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 41, 400 (1962).Google Scholar
  117. Mahesh, Y.B., Greenblatt, R.B.: Steroid secretions of the normal and polycystic ovary. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 20, 341 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Mayes, D., Nugent, C.A.: J. clin. Endöcr. 28, 1169 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Migeon, C.J.: Diskussionsbemerkung zu APOSTOLAKIS U. Mitarb. Testosterone, S. 161. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  120. Migeon, C.J., Keller, A.R., Lawrence, B., Shepard, T.H.: Dehydroepiandrosterone and androsterone levels in human plasma. Effect of age and sex; day-to-day and diurnal variations. J. clin. Endocr. 17, 1051 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Migeon, C.J., Rivarola, M.A., Saez, J.M.: Secretion of testosterone, androstendione and dehydroepiandrosterone in various androcrinopathies. Testosterone, p. 176. Stuttgart. G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  122. Migeon, C. J., Rivarola, M.A., Saez, J.M., Forest, M.G.: Urinary excretion of testosterone, glucuronide and plasma concentration of testosterone and androstendione during pregnancy. Testosterone, p. 204. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968b.Google Scholar
  123. Migeon, C. J.: Adrenal Androgens in Man. Amer. J. clin. Med. 53, 606 (1972).Google Scholar
  124. Mikhail, G., Allen, W.M.: Proc. II. Int. Congr. Hormones. Steroids. Exc. Med. Found., Abstract 239, 1966.Google Scholar
  125. Miztjno, M., Lobotsky, J., Lloyd, C.W., Kobayashi, T., Murasawa, Y.: J. clin. Endocr. 28, 1133 (1968).Google Scholar
  126. Molen, H.J. Van Der, Groen, D., Petersen, A.: Measurement of testosterone in plasma and urine using gasliquid chromatography. Androgens, Proc. II. Symp. Steroid Hormones. Exc. Med. Found., p. 1, 1966.Google Scholar
  127. Morer-Fargas, F., Nowakowski, H.: Die Testosteronausseheidung im Harn bei männlichen Individuen. Acta encocr. (Kbh.) 49, 443 (1965).Google Scholar
  128. Morris, J.M.L., Mahesh, V.: Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 87, 731 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Morse, H.C., Horike, N., Rowley, M.J., Heller, C.G.: Testosterone concentrations in Testes of normal men: effects of Testosterone Proprionate administration. J. clin. Endocr. 37, 882 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Murphy, B.: Some studies of the protein-binding of steroids and their application to the routine micro- and ultramicro measurement of various steroids in body fluids by competitive protein-binding radioassay. J. clin. Endocr. 27, 973 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Neher, R., Kahnt, F.W.: Gonadel steroid biosynthesis in vitro in four cases of testicular feminization. Androgens. Exc. Med. Found., p. 130, 1966.Google Scholar
  132. Nicolis, G.L., Hsu, L.Y., Sabetghadam, R., Kardon, N.B., Chernay, P.R., Mathur, D.P., Rose, H.G., Hirschhorn, K., Gabrilove, J.L.: Klmefelter’s Syndrome in Identicals Twins with the 46, XX Chromosome Constitution. Amer. J. clin. Med. 52, 482 (1972).Google Scholar
  133. Nieschlag, E., Loriaux, D.L.: Radioimmunoassay for Plasma Testosterone. Z. klin. Chem. 10, 164 (1972).Google Scholar
  134. Nieschlag, E., Kley, H.K., Wiegelmann, W., Solbach, H.G., Krüskemper, H.L.: Lebensalter und endokrine Funktion der Testes des erwachsenen Mannes. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 98, 1281 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Oertel, G.W., Rindt, W.: Lipophile C19-steroidconjugates. Androgens. Exc. Med. Found., p. 192,1966.Google Scholar
  136. Panicucci, F.: Gaschromatographic determination of plasma and urinary androgens (testosterone and 17-Ketosteroids) in normal men. Androgens. Proc. II. Symp. Steroid Hormones. Exc. Med. Found., p. 25, 1966.Google Scholar
  137. Paulsen, C.A., Gordon, D.L., Carpenter, R.W., Gandy, H.M., Drucker, W.D.: Kline- felder’s syndrome and its variants: A hormonal and chromosomal study. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 24, 321 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Payne, A.H., Kawano, A., Jaffe, R.B.: Formation of Dihydrotestosterone and other 5a-reduced Metabolites by isolated seminiferous Tubules and suspension of Interstitial cells in a Human Testis. J. clin. Endocr. 37, 448 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Pion, R.J., Dignom, W.J., Lamb, E.J., Moore, J.G., Frankland, M.Y., Simmer, H.H.: Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 93, 1067 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Pirke, K.M.: A Comparison of three methods of Mesuring Testosterone in Plasma: Competitive Protein Binding, Radioimmunoassay without Chromatography and Radioimmunoassay including thin Layer Chromatography. Acta endocr. 74, 168 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Pochi, P.E., Strauss, J.S., Rao, G.S., Sarda, J.R., Forchielli, E., Dorfman, R.I.: Plasma testosterone and androgen levels, urine testosterone excretion, and sebum production in males with acne vulgaris. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 1660 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Rappaport, R., Forest, M.G., Bayard, F., Duval-Beaupere, G., Blizzard, R.M., Migeon, C. J.: Plasma Androgens and LH in Scoliotic Patients with Premature Pubarche. J. clin. Endocr. 38, 401 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Resko, J. A., Eik-Nes, K.B.: Diurnal testosterone levels in peripheral plasma of human male subjects. J. clin. Endocr. 26, 573 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Reyes, F.I., Boroditsky, R.S., Winter, J.S.D., Faiman, C.: Studies on Human Sexual Development. II. Fetal and Maternal Serum Gonadotropins and Sex Steroid Concentrations. J. clin. Endocr. 38, 612 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Riggs, B.L., Ryan, R. J., Wahner, H.W., Jiang, N.S., Mattox, R.: Serum concentrations of estrogen, testosterone and gonadrotropins in oesteoporotic and nonosteoporotie postmenopausal women. J. clin. Endocr. 36, 1097 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Riondel, A., Tait, J.F., Gut, M., Tait, S.A.S., Joachim, E., Little, B.: Estimation of testosterone in human peripheral blood using S35-thiosemicarbozide. J. clin. Endoer. 23, 620 (1963).Google Scholar
  147. Riyarola, M.A., Migeon, C.J.: Steroids 7, 103 (1966).Google Scholar
  148. Rivarola, M.A., Saez, J.M., Jones, H.W., Jr., Jones, G.S., Migeon, C. J.: J. Hopkins Med. J. 121,85 (1967 C).Google Scholar
  149. Riyarola, M.A., Saez, J.M., Meyer, W. J., Jenkins, M.E., Migeon, C.J.: Metabolic clearan- cerate and blood production rate of testosterone and androst-4-ene-3,17-dione under basal conditions, ACTH and HCG stimulation. Comparison with urinary production rate of testosterone. J. clin. Endocr. 26, 1208 (1966).Google Scholar
  150. Rivarola, M.A., Saez, J.M., Meyer, I., Kenny, F.M., Migeon, C.J.: Studies of androgens in the syndrome of male pseudohermaphroditism with testicular feminization. J. clin. Endocr. 27, 371 (1967a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Rivarola, M.A., Saez, J.M., Migeon, C. J.: Studies of androgens in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J. clin. Endocr. 27, 624 (1967 b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Rivarola, M.A., Forest, M.G., Migeon, C.J.: Testosterone, androstenedione and dehydro- epiandrosterone in plasma during pregnancy and at delivery: concentration and protein binding. J. clin. Endocr. 28, 34 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Rivarola, M.A., Podestra, E.J., Chemes, H.E., Aguilar, D.: In Vitro Metabolism of Testosterone by Whole Women Testis, isolated seminiferous Tubuled and Interstitial tissue. J. clin. Endocr. 37, 454 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Rosenfield, R.L., Grossman, B.J., Ozoa, N.: Plasma 17-Ketosteroids and Testosterone in prepubertal children before and after ACTH administration. J. clin. Endocr. 33, 249 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Rosenfield, R.L., Fang, V.S., Dupon, C., Kim, M.H., Refetoff, S.: The Effects of low doses of depot Estradiol and Testosterone in Teenagers with Ovarian Failure and Turner’s Syndrome. J. clin. Endocr. 37, 574 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Rosner, J.M., Conte, N.F.: Evaluation of testicular function by measurement of urinary excretion of testosterone. J. clin. Endocr. 26, 735 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Rosner, J.M., Conte, N.F., Briggs, J.H., Chao, P.Y., Sudman, E.M., Forsham, P.H.: Determination of urinary testosterone by chromatography colorimetry. Findings in normal subjects and patients with endocrine diseases. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 95 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Ruokonen, A., Laatikainen, T., Laitinen, E.A., Vihko, R.: Biochemistry 11, 1411 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Saez, J.M., Rivarola, M.A., Migeon, C.J.: Studies of androgens in patients with adrenocortical tumors. J. clin. Endocr. 27, 615 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Saez, J.M., Morera, A.M., Peretti, E., Bertrand, J.: Further in vivo studies in male Pseudohermaphroditism with gynecomastia due to a testicular 17-Ketosteroid Reductase Defect. J. clin. Endocr. 34, 598 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Sandberg, D.H., Ahmad, N., Cleveland, W.W., Savard, K.: Measurement of urinary testosterone by gas liquid chromatography. Steroids 4, 557 (1964).Google Scholar
  162. Sandberg, D.H., Ahmed, N., Zachman, M., Cleveland, W.W.: Steroids 6, 777 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Schubert, K., Frankenberg, G.: Die Bestimmung von Testosteron und 4-Androstendion (3,17) im Harn. Hoppe-Seylers Z. physiol. Chem. 336, 91 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Schubert, K., Wehrberger, K.: Isolierung von Testosteron aus Normalharn. Naturwissen- schaften 47, 281 (1960).Google Scholar
  165. Schweickert, H.U., Wilson, J.D.: Regulation of human hair growth by steroid hormones. I. Testosterone metabolism in isolated hairs. J. clin. Endocr. 38, 811 (1974).Google Scholar
  166. Segre, E. J., Klaiber, E.L., Lobotzky, J., Lloyd, C. W.: Hirsutism and virilizing hormones. Ann. Rev. Med. 15, 315 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Sherins, R. J., Loriaux, D.L.: Studies on the role of sex steroids in the Feedback control of FSH concentrations in men. J. clin. Endocr. 36, 886 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Sjörall, K., Sjörall, J., Maddock, K., Hornung, E.C.: Analyt. Biochem. 14, 337 (1966).Google Scholar
  169. Smals, A.G.H., Kloppenborg, P.W.C., Benraad, Th.J.: Diurnal plasma testosterone rhythm and the effect of short term ACTH administration on plasma testosterone in man. Acta endocr. Suppl. 177, 119 (1973).Google Scholar
  170. Sorcini, G., Sciarra, F., Concolino, F., Capone, M.: Folia endocr. (Roma) 15, 696 (1962).Google Scholar
  171. Southren, A.L., Gordon, G.G., Tochimoto, S.: Further study of factors affecting the metabolic clearance rate of testosterone in man. J. clin. Endocr. 28, 1105 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Southren, A.L., Ross, H., Sharma, B.C., Gordon, G., Weingold, A., Dorfman, R.I.: Plasma concentration and biosynthesis of testosterone in the syndrome of feminizing testes. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 518 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Southren, A.L., Tochimoto, S., Carmody, N.C., Isurugi, K.: Plasma production rates of testosterone in normal adult men and women and in patients with the syndrome of feminizing testes. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 1441 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Southren, A.L., Gordon, G.G., Olivo, J., Rafi, F., Rosenthal, W.S.: Androgen Metabolism in Cirrhosis of the Liver. Metabolism 22, 695 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Staib, W., HÜBner, W.: On the fluorometric determination of testosterone in human urine. Testosterone, p. 36. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  176. Stearns, E.L., Winter, J.S., Faimann, C.: Effects of Coitus on Gonadotropin, Prolactin and sex steroid levels in man. J. clin. Endocr. 37, 687 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Steeno, O., De Moor, P., Lauwerkyns, J.: Dysandrogenetic forms of male hypogonadism a subvariant of “false” klinefelter’s syndrome. Androgens. Exc. Med. Found., p. 186, 1966.Google Scholar
  178. Steinberger, E.: in ROSENBERG, E., PAULSEN, C.A. (Eds.): Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. The Human Testis, 10, p. 110. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation 1970.Google Scholar
  179. Stewart-Bentley, M., Horton, R.: Leydig Cell Function in Klinefelter’s Syndrome. Metabolism 22, 875 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Stewart-Bentley, M., Odell, W., Horton, R.: The Feedback Control of Luteinizing Hormone in normal adult men. J. clin. Endocr. 38, 545 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Stuiver, P.C., Thijssen, J.H.H., Van Der Molen, H.J.: Plasma testosterone urinary excretion of 17-Ketosteroid fractions and urinary total 17-Ketosteroids, before, during and after stimulation with HCG in patients with deficient testicular function. Proc. II. symp. Steroid. Hormones. Exc. Med. Found., p. 87, 1966.Google Scholar
  182. Surace, M., Luisi, M., Moneta, E., Marescotti, V., Polrani, F.: Plasma testosterone determination of women in normal and pathological conditions, using horizontal thin-layer and gasliquid chromotography. Androgens. Proc. II. Symp. Steroid Hormones. Exc. Med. Found., p. 16, 1966.Google Scholar
  183. Tait, J.F., Burstein, S.: In vivo studies of steroid dynamic in man. In: The Hormones, Vol. 5, p. 1. New York-London: Academic Press 1964.Google Scholar
  184. Tait, J.F., Horton, R.: In: Dynamics of steroid metabolism. Ed. by G. PINCUS, and T. NAKAO. New York: Academic Press 1965.Google Scholar
  185. Tait, J.F., Horton, R.: In: Steroid dynamics. New York: Academic Press 1966.Google Scholar
  186. Tamm, J., Schmidt, H., Voigt, K.D.: Influence of orchiedomy, adrenalektomy or hypophy- sectomy on testosterone excretion in urine. Testosterone, p. 183. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  187. Tanner, J.M.: Wachstum und Reifung des Menschen. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1962.Google Scholar
  188. Thomas, J.P., Oake, R.J.: Androgens Metabolism in the Skin of Hirsute Women. J. clin. Endocr. 38, 19 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Tremblay, R. R., Kowarski, A., Park, I. J., Migeon, C. J.: Blood Production rate of Dihydrotestosterone in the Syndrome of Male Pseudohermaphroditism with testicular feminization. J. clin. Endocr. 35, 101 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Tulchinsky, D., Chopra, I.: Competitive Ligard-Binding Assay for Measurement of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) J. clin. Endocr. 37, 873 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Tyler, J.P.P.: Problems with a radioimmunoassay for testosterone. J. Reprod. Fertil. 33, 357 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Vermeulen, A.: Urinary excretion of testosterone. Androgens. Exc. Med. Found., p. 71, 1966.Google Scholar
  193. Vermeulen, A.: Determination of testosterone in plasma by electron capture detection of the heptafluoride. Testosterone, p. 13. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  194. Vermeulen, A.: Testosterone excretion, plasma testosterone levels and testosterone production rates in health and disease. Testosterone, p. 170. Stuttgart: G. Thieme 1968.Google Scholar
  195. Vermeulen, A.: Determination of Androgens in Plasma. The endocr. function of the testis, Vol. I, Eds. JAMES, V.H.T., SERIO, M., MARTINI, L., p. 91. New York and London: Acad. Press 1973a.Google Scholar
  196. Vermeulen, A.: The physical state of Testosterone in Plasma. The endocr. function of the Testis, Vol. I, p. 157. New York and London: Academic Press 1973b.Google Scholar
  197. Vermeulen, A.: Plasma levels of Androgens and testicular abnormalities. Acta endocr. Suppl. 177, 389 (1973c).Google Scholar
  198. Vermeulen, A., Verplancke, J.C.M.: A simple method for the determination of urinary testosterone excretion in human urine. Steroids 2, 453 (1963).Google Scholar
  199. Vermeulen, A., Rubens, R., Verdonck, L.: J. clin. Endocr. 34, 730 (1972). (Testosteron Secretion and Metabolism in Male Senescence.)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Vikho, R.: Acta endocr. (Kbh.) Suppl. 109 (1966).Google Scholar
  201. Vihko, R., JÄNNE, O., Perheentura, J., Vhntkka, L.: Plasma testosterone, Progesterone and 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone in different forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Acta endocr. Suppl. 177, 305 (1973).Google Scholar
  202. Villee, D.B.: The Development of Steroidogenesis. Amer. J. clin. Med. 53, 533 (1972).Google Scholar
  203. Voigt, N.D., Volkwein, K., Tamm, J.: Eine Methode zur Bestimmung der Testeronausscheidung im Urin. Klin. Wschr. 42, 641 (1964).Google Scholar
  204. West, C.D., Damast, B.L., Sarro, S.D., Pearson, O.H.: J. biol. Chem. 218, 409 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Wieland, R.G., De Courey, C., Levy, R.P., Zala, A. P., Hirschmann, H.: J. clin. Invest. 44, 159 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Wiele, R.L. Van De, Macdonald, P.O., Gurpide, E., Lieberman, S.: Studies on the secretion and interconversion of the androgens. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 19, 275 (1963).Google Scholar
  207. Williams-Ashman, H.G., Reddi, A.H.: Androgenic regulation of tissue growth and function, Biochemical Actions of Hormones, Vol. 2 (LITWACK, G., Ed.), p. 257. New York: Academic Press 1972.Google Scholar
  208. Winter, J.S.D., Fairman, C.: Serum Gonadotropin in Agonadal Children and Adults. J. clin. Endocr. 35, 561 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Zurbrtjgg, R.P., Jacobs, R.D., Gardner, L.I.: Urinary testosterone: A method utilizing column chromatography. J. clin. Endoer. 25, 315 (1965)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Bahner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations