• Richard G. Kessel
  • Ching Y. Shih


The bacteria are probably the simplest cellular organisms. Individual bacteria are visible only under a microscope and measure less than .8 µm in length and as small as 0.5 µm wide. However, the weight of the total number of bacteria in the world exceeds that of all other organisms. It has been calculated that there may be 1000000 to 50000000 bacteria per gram of top soil.


Methane Dioxide Sulfide Respiration Polysaccharide 


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  1. Erlandsen, S.L., and Chase, D.G.: “Paneth cell function: Phagocytosis and intracellular digestion of intestinal microorganisms. II. Spiral microorganism.” J. Ultrastruct. Res. 41, 319–333 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. Galask, R.P., Larsen, B., and Synder, I. S.: “ Amniotic fluid induced surface ultramicrocytology of Escherichia coli.” Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. In press.Google Scholar
  2. Larsen, B., Schlievert, P., and Galask, R.P.: “The spectrum of antibacterial activity of human amniotic fluid determined by scanning electron microscopy.” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 118, 921–926 (1974).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard G. Kessel
    • 1
  • Ching Y. Shih
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyThe University of IowaIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Scanning Electron Microscope LaboratoryThe University of IowaIowa CityUSA

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