So far, the hypothesized memory traces, or engrams, have not been shown to exist in the nervous system of man or the higher vertebrates by any means, whether morphological, neurophysiological or biochemical. It is legitimate to question whether the methodology of the engram as hitherto conceived can ever yield useful results. For this reason, the ideas of information theory have been applied in the search for a new approach to a reformulation of the clinical and experimental psychopathology of memory.
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