Commentary on confounding: Examples of its influence in weak associations

  • Kunio Aoki
Conference paper


I would like to introduce an example of confounding and subgroup analysis in relation to interaction of causative factors in a case-control study of oesophageal cancer in Japan. It is an old study, but this analysis is now linked to molecular epidemiology in oesophageal cancer.




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  1. 1.
    Aoki K, Okada H, Segi M. et al. (1980) Causative factors of oesophageal cancer investigation by case-control study. Nagoyo T, Tominaga S. eds. Cancer-Japan and the World - The trends and etiology, pp.300–315, Shinohara Shuppan, (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aoki K, Sasaki R, Okada K, Haenszel W (1986) Epidemiological study on esophageal cancer in Japan. Kasai, M., ed., Esophageal Cancer, pp. 3–6, Excerpta Medica, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kammon S, Hirayama T (1980) Study on epidemiologicic features and etiology of esophageal cancer. Nagoya T, Tominaga S, eds. Cancer–Japan and the World. Its trends and etiology, pp 279–299, Shinohara Shuppan, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kunio Aoki
    • 1
  1. 1.TokyoJapan

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