Advertisement

Physiology of Poikilohydric Plants

  • Wolfram Hartung
  • Petra Schiller
  • Karl-Josef Dietz
Part of the Progress in Botany book series (BOTANY, volume 59)

Abstract

The capability of cells, organs or whole organisms to survive cycles of dehydration and rehydration has evolved in most systematic groups of the plant kingdom. Interestingly, even in the systematic group of the angiosperms, where the sporophytic plant body is usually characterized by high sensitivity towards dehydration, specific structures such as seeds or pollen may undergo excessive water loss without losing viability. Both the distribution of dehydration tolerance throughout the plant kingdom and the occurrence of tolerant structures in most species suggest that many or most structural and metabolic properties required for dehydration tolerance are present in all plants and that only some changes in the developmental program are required to realize the trait of resurrecting a dried plant body. If this provocative conclusion is correct, the question arises why only a limited number of plants have relied on the maintenance of dehydration tolerance. The likely reason is that dehydration tolerance, particularly in higher plants, is advantageous only under very extreme growth conditions but simultaneously poses a severe selective disadvantage in competition for growth, reproduction and spreading under most other growth conditions. In this context, it is important to note that even most resurrection plants must first undergo a period of moderate water loss in order to develop full dehydration tolerance.

Keywords

Drought Stress Relative Water Content Compatible Solute Desiccation Tolerance Resurrection Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bartels D, Schneider K, Terstappen G, Piatkowski D, Salamini F (1990) Molecular cloning of abscisic acid-modulated genes which are induced during desiccation of the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. Planta 181: 27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartels D, Hanke C, Schneider K, Michel D, Salamini F (1992) A desiccation-related Elip-like gene from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum is regulated by light and ABA. EMBO J 11: 2771–2778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartels D, Furini A, Bockel C, Frank W, Salamini F (1996) Gene expression during dehydration stress in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. In: Grillo S, Leone A (eds) Physical stress in plants. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barthlott W, Porembski S (1996) Ecology and morphology of Blossfeldia liliputana (Cactaceae): a poikilohydric and almost astomate succulent. Bot Acta 109: 161–166Google Scholar
  5. Bewley JD (1979) Physiological aspects of desiccation tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 30: 195–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bewley JD (1995) Physiological aspects of desiccation tolerance — a retrospect. Int J Plant Sci 156: 393–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bianchi G, Gamba A, Murelli C, Salamini F, Bartels D (1991) Novel carbohydrate metabolism in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. Plant J 1: 355–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bianchi G, Gamba A, Murelli C, Salamini F, Bartels D (1992) Low molecular weight solutes in desiccated and ABA-treated calli and leaves of Craterostigma plantagineum. Phytochemistry 31: 1917–1922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bianchi G, Gamba A, Limiroli CR, Pozzi N, Elster R, Salamini F, Bartels D (1993) The unusual sugar composition in leaves of the resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia. Physiol Plant 87: 223–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blackman SA, Obendorf RL, Leopold AC (1992) Maturation proteins and sugars in desiccation tolerance of developing soybean seeds. Plant Physiol 100: 225–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bruni F, Leopold AC (1991) Glass transitions in soybean seed. Relevance to anhydrous biology. Plant Physiol 96: 660–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Casper C, Eickmeyer WG, Osmond CB (1993) Changes of fluorescence and xanthophyll pigments during dehydration in the resurrection plant Selaginella lepidophylla in low and medium light intensities. Oecologia 94: 528–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaves MM (1991) Effects of water deficits on carbon assimilation. J Exp Bot 42: 1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Close TJ, Fenton RD, Yang A, Asghar R, DeMason DA, Crone DE, Meyer NC, Moonan F (1993) Dehydrins: the protein. In: Cole TJ, Bray EA (eds) Plant responses to cellular dehydration during environmental stress. American Society of Plant Physiology, Rockville, pp 104–118Google Scholar
  15. Crowe JH, Hoekstra FA, Crowe LM (1992) Anhydrobiosis. Annu Rev Physiol 54: 579–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dhindsa RS (1991) Drought stress, enzymes of glutathione metabolism, oxidation injury, and protein synthesis in Tortula ruralis. Plant Physiol 95: 648–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dietz K-J, Heber U (1983) Carbon dioxide gas exchange and the energy status of leaves of Primulapalinura underwater stress. Planta 159: 349–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dietz K-J, Keller F (1996) Transient storage of photosynthates in leaves. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of photosynthesis. Dekker, New York, pp 717–737Google Scholar
  19. Dinter K (1918) Botanische Reisen in Deutsch-Südwest-Afrika. Feddes Rep Bein 3: 1–169Google Scholar
  20. Downton WJS, Loveys BR, Grant WJR (1988) Stomatal closure fully accounts for the inhibition of photosynthesis by abscisic acid. New Phytol 108: 263–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dure L III (1993) Structural motifs in LEA proteins. In: Close TJ, Bray EA (eds) Plant responses to cellular dehydration during environmental stress. ASPP series, vol 10. American Society of Plant Physiology, Rockville, pp 91–103Google Scholar
  22. Dure L III, Greenway SC, Galau GA (1981) Developmental biochemistry of cotton seed embryogenesis and germination. Biochemistry 20: 4162–4168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fischer E (1992) Systematik der afrikanischen Lindernieae (Scrophulariaceae). Steiner, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  24. Furini A, Koncz C, Salamini F, Bartels D (1994) Agrobacterium-mediaLted transformation of the desiccation tolerant plant Craterostigma plantagineum. Plant Cell Rep 14: 102–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Furini A, Parcy F. Salamini F, Bartels D (1996) Differential regulation of two ABA-inducible genes from Craterostigma plantagineum in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Plant Mol Biol 30: 343–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gaff DF (1972) Drought resistance in Welwitschia mirabilis HOOKER fil. Dinteria 7: 3–7Google Scholar
  27. Gaff DF (1977) Desiccation tolerant vascular plants of southern Africa. Oecologia 31: 95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gaff DF (1980) Protoplasmic tolerance of extreme water stress. In: Turner NC, Kramer PJ (eds) Adaptations of plants to water and high temperature stress. Wiley, New York, pp 207–231Google Scholar
  29. Gaff DG (1987) Desiccation tolerant plants in South America. Oecologia 74: 133–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gaff DF (1989) Responses of desiccation tolerant resurrection plants to water stress. In: Kreeb KH, Richter H, Hinckley TM (eds) Structural and functional responses to environmental stresses: water shortage. SBP Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 255–268Google Scholar
  31. Gaff DF, Churchill DM (1976) Borya nitida labill. an Australien species in the Liliaceae with desiccation-tolerant leaves. Aust J Bot 24: 209–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gaff DF, Giess W (1986) Drought resistance in water plants in rock pools of southern Africa. Dinteria 18: 17–36Google Scholar
  33. Gaff DF, Loveys BR (1984) Abscisic acid content and effects during dehydration of detached leaves of desiccation tolerant plants. J Exp Bot 35: 1350–1358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gaff DF, McGregor GR (1979) The effect of dehydration and rehydration on the nitrogen content of various fractions from resurrection plants. Biol Plant 21: 92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gaff DF, Wood JN (1988) Salt-resistant desiccation tolerant grasses. Proceedings of the International Congress on Plant Physiology, New Delhi, pp 984–988Google Scholar
  36. Gaff DF, Ziegler H, Zimmermann U (1985) Electrofusion of protoplasts from desiccation tolerant grass species and desiccation sensitive grass protoplasts. J Plant Physiol 120: 375–380Google Scholar
  37. Gamble PE, Burke JJ (1984) Effect of water stress on the chloroplast antioxidant system. Alteration in glutathione activity. Plant Physiol 76: 615–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Guerrero FD, Jones JT, Mullet JE (1990) Turgor-responsive gene transcription and RNA levels increase rapidly when pea shoots are wilted: sequence and expression of three inducible genes. Plant Mol Biol 15: 11–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guiltan MJ, Marcotte WR Jr, Quatrano RS (1990) A plant leucine zipper protein that recognizes an abscisic acid response element. Science 250: 267–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harten JB, Eickmeyer WG (1986) Enzyme dynamics of the resurrection plant Selaginella lepidophylla (HOOK & GREV) SPRING during rehydration. Plant Physiol 82: 61–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Heil H (1924) Chamaegigas intrepidus Dtr., eine neue Auferstehungspflanze. Beih Bot Zentralbl 41: 41–50Google Scholar
  42. Hellwege EM, Dietz K-J, Volk OH, Härtung W (1994) Abscisic acid and the induction of desiccation tolerance in the extremely xerophilic liverwort Exormotheca holstii. Planta 194: 525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hellwege EM, Dietz K-J, Härtung W (1996) Abscisic acid causes changes in gene expression involved in the induction of the landform of the liverwort Riccia fluitans. Planta 198: 423–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hideg E (1996) Free radical production in photosynthesis under stress conditions. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of photosynthesis. Dekker, New York, pp 911–930Google Scholar
  45. Hollenbach B, Dietz K-J (1995) Molecular cloning of emip, a member of the major intrinsic protein gene family, preferentially expressed in epidermal cells of barley leaves. Bot Acta 108: 425–431Google Scholar
  46. Iljin WS (1930) Die Ursachen der Resistenz von Pflanzenzellen gegen Austrocknung. Protoplasma 10: 379–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ingram J, Bartels D (1996) The molecular basis of dehydration tolerance in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47: 377–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Irmscher E (1912) Über die Resistenz der Laubmoose gegen Austrocknung und Kälte. Jahrb Wiss Bot 50: 387–449Google Scholar
  49. Iturriaga G, Schneider K, Salamini F, Bartels D (1992) Expression of desiccation-related proteins from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum in transgenic tobacco. Plant Mol Biol 20: 555–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jagtap V, Bhargava S (1995) Variation in the antioxidant metabolism of drought tolerant and drought sensitive varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) MOENCH. exposed to high light, low water and high temperature stress. J Plant Physiol 145: 195–197Google Scholar
  51. Kaiser WM (1987) Effects of water deficit on photosynthetic capacity. Physiol Plant 71: 142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kerr PS (1993) Soybean products with improved carbohydrate composition and soybean plants. DuPont de Nemours, PCT Pat US92/08958Google Scholar
  53. Kishor PBK, Hong Z, Miao G-H, Hu CAA, Verma DPS (1995) Overexpression of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase increases proline production and confers osmotolerance in transgenic plants. Plant Physiol 108: 1387–1394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kuang J, Gaff DF, Gianello RD, Blomstedt CK, Neale AD, Hamill JD (1995) Changes of in vivo protein complements in drying leaves of the desiccation-tolerant grass Sporobolus stapfianus and the desiccation-sensitive grass Sporobolus pyramidalis. Aust J Plant Physiol 22: 1027–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kuo TM, Van Middlesworth JF, Wolf WJ (1988) Content of raffinose oligosaccharides and sucrose in various plant seeds. J Agric Food Chem 36: 32–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lers A, Levy H, Zamir A (1991) Coregulation of a gene homologous to early light induced genes in higher plants and beta-carotene biosynthesis in the alga Dunaliella bardawil J Biol Chem 266: 13698–13705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Levitt J (1980) Responses of plants to environmental stresses, vol 2. Water, radiation, salt and other stresses. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Lösch R (1996) Plant water relations: metabolic responses to water deficit and surplus. Prog Bot 57: 17–31Google Scholar
  59. Michel D, Salamini F, Bartels D, Dale P, Baga M, Szalay A (1993) Analysis of a desiccation and ABA-responsive promotor isolated from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. Plant J 4: 29–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Michel D, Furini A, Salamini F, Bartels D (1994) Structure and regulation of an ABA- and desiccation-responsive gene from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. Plant Mol Biol 24: 549–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Müller MAN (1985) Gräser Südafrikas/Namibias. Meinert, WindhoekGoogle Scholar
  62. Navari-Izzo F, Pinzino C, Quartacci MF, Sgherri CLM, Izzo R (1994) Intracellular membranes: kinetics of superoxide production and changes in thylakoids of resurrection plants upon dehydration and rehydration. Proc Soc Edinburgh [3] 102: 187–191Google Scholar
  63. Navari-Izzo F, Ricci F, Vazzana C, Quartacci MF (1995) Unusual composition of thylakoid membranes of the resurrection plant Boea hygroscopica: changes in lipids upon dehydration and resurrection. Physiol Plant 94: 135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nelson D, Salamini F, Bartels D (1994) Abscisic acid promotes novel DNA-binding activity to a desiccation-related promotor of Craterostigma plantagineum. Plant J 5: 451–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nugent G, Gaff DF (1989) Electrofusion of protoplasts from desiccation tolerant species and desiccation sensitive species of grasses. Biochem Physiol Pflanzen 185: 93–97Google Scholar
  66. Okamuro JK, Goldberg RB (1989) Regulation of plant gene expression. In: Macus A (ed) The biochemistry of plants, vol 15. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–82Google Scholar
  67. Oliver MJ, Bewley JD (1984) Plant desiccation and protein synthesis. VI. Changes in protein synthesis elicited by desiccation of the moss Tortula ruralis are affected at the translational level. Plant Physiol 74: 923–927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Price AH, Hendry GAF (1991) Iron-catalysed oxygen radical formation and its possible contribution to drought damage in nine native grasses and three cereals. Plant Cell Environ 14: 477–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Puliga S, Vazzana C, Davies WJ (1996) Control of crops leaf growth by chemical and hydraulic influences. J Exp Bot 47: 29–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Reynolds TL, Bewley JD (1993a) Characterization of protein synthetic changes in a desiccation tolerant fern, Polypodium virginianum. Comparison of the effects of drying and rehydration, and abscisic acid. J Exp Bot 44: 921–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Reynolds TL, Bewley JD (1993b) Abscisic acid enhances the ability of the desiccation tolerant fern Polypodium virginianum to withstand drying. J Exp Bot 44: 1771–1779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Saccardy K, Cornic G, Brulfert J, Reuss A (1996) Effect of drought stress on net CO2-uptake by Zea leaves. Planta 199: 589–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schiller P, Härtung W, Ratcliffe RG (1997a) A stress-physiological 31P-NMR study of the aquatic resurrection plant Chamaegigas intrepidus. J Exp Bot 48:suppl41Google Scholar
  74. Schiller P, Heilmeier H, Hartung W (1997b) Abscisic acid (ABA) relations in the aquatic resurrection plant Chamaegigas intrepidus under naturally fluctuating environmental conditions. New Phytol (in press)Google Scholar
  75. Schmidt JE, Kaiser WM (1987) Response of the succulent leaves of Peperomia magnoliae-folia to dehydration. Planta 83: 190–194Google Scholar
  76. Schneider K, Wells B, Schmelzer E, Salamini F, Bartels D (1993) Desiccation leads to the rapid accumulation of both cytosolic and chloroplastic proteins in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. Planta 189: 120–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schwab K (1986) Morphologische, physiologische und biochemische Anpassungsstrategien austrocknungstoleranter höherer Pflanzen. PhD thesis, University of WürzburgGoogle Scholar
  78. Schwab K, Gaff DF (1986) Sugar and ion contents in leaf tissues of several drought tolerant and drought sensitive plants. J Plant Physiol 125: 257–265Google Scholar
  79. Schwab K, Heber U (1984) Thylakoid membrane stability in drought tolerant and drought sensitive species. Planta 161: 37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sgherri CLM, Quartacci MF, Bochicchio A, Navari-Izzo F (1994) Defence mechanisms against production of free radicals in cells of ‘resurrection’ plants. Proc R Soc Edinburgh [B] 102: 291–294Google Scholar
  81. Sherwin HW, Berjak P, Farrant JM, Pammenter NW (1995) The importance of critical cell volume and cell wall elasticity in the ability to withstand desiccation. In: Beihassan E, Schlicht F, Cuellar T, Lewicki S (eds) Integrated study on drought tolerance of higher plants. INRA, ParisGoogle Scholar
  82. Smirnoff N, Colombé SV (1988) Drought influences the activity of enzymes of the chloroplast hydrogen peroxide scavenging system. J Exp Bot 39: 1097–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Spickett CM, Smirnoff N, Ratcliffe RG (1992) Metabolic response of maize roots to hyperosmotic shock. An in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study. Plant Physiol 99: 856–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sutaryono YA, Gaff DF (1992) Grazing potential of desiccation tolerant tropical and subtropical grasses. Trans Malaysian Soc Plant Physiol 3: 180–183Google Scholar
  85. Tarczynski MC, Jensen RG, Bohnert HJ (1993) Stress protection of transgenic tobacco by production of the osmolyte mannitol. Science 259: 508–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tuba Z, Lichtenthaler HK, Maroti I, Csintalan Z (1993) Resynthesis of thylakoids and functional chloroplasts in the desiccated leaves of the poikilochlorophyllous plant Xerophyta scabrida upon rehydration. J Plant Physiol 142: 742–748Google Scholar
  87. Turner NC, Henson IE (1989) Comparative water relations and gas exchange of wheat and lupins in the field. In: Kreeb KH, Richter H, Hinckley TM (eds) Structural and functional responses to environmental stresses: water shortage. SBP Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 293–304Google Scholar
  88. Walter H (1955) The water economy and the hydrature of plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 6: 239–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Walter H, Volk OH (1954) Grundlagen der Weidewirtschaft in Südwestafrika. Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  90. Weiler EW (1980) Radioimmunoassays for the differential and direct analysis of free and conjugated abscisic acid in plant extracts. Planta 148: 262–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Werner O, Bopp M (1993) The influence of ABA and IAA on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. J Plant Phys 141: 93–97Google Scholar
  92. Werner O, Ros Espin RM, Bopp M, Atzorn R (1991) Abscisic-acid-induced drought tolerance in Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. Planta 186: 99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Koizumi M, Urao S, Shinozaki K (1992) Molecular cloning and characterization of 9 cDNAs for genes that are responsive to desiccation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol 33: 217–224Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfram Hartung
    • 1
  • Petra Schiller
    • 1
  • Karl-Josef Dietz
    • 1
  1. 1.Julius-von-Sachs-InstitutUniversität WürzburgWürzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations