Single Shot RARE

  • J. Hennig


In his original paper on echo-planar imaging (EPI) Mansfield foresaw the using of a train of RF pulses to create multiple signals that could phase encoded to produce a magnetic resonance (MR) image [15]. Despite several attempts to produce a practical pulse sequence according to this concept it took several years before such a sequence could be demonstrated [5]. Even after the first successful demonstration of such a system in 1984 on a clinical scanner it took another 7 years before the method found widespread acceptance [18]. Segmented acquisition, which uses more than one excitation of the spin system to generate all phase-encoding steps for image reconstruction, is currently installed on all state-of-the-art MR systems under various terms (fast spin echo, turbo-spin echo) and plays an important role in clinical diagnosis [1, 12, 13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 26–29, 33]. The single-scan rapid spin echo (RARE) technique has as yet been installed only on a limited number of systems despite its useful clinical applications [3, 6, 7, 8, 14, 24, 25, 30, 31]. This chapter discusses the problems in generating a long echo train under the conditions of a clinical MR system and presents an overview of the clinical use of the technique.


Spinal Canal Magn Reson Image Spin Echo Magnetic Resonance Urography Slice Selection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Chien D, Mulkern RV (1992) Fast spin-echo studies of contrast and small-lesion definition in a liver metastasis phantom. J Magn Reson Imaging 2:483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    De Coene B, Hajnal JV, Gatehouse P et al (1992) MR of the brain using fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) pulse sequences. AJNR 13:1555–1564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Friedburg HG, Hennig J (1986) RARE myelography: clinical experience in 128 Cases. Proceedings of the 5th annual meeting, Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Montreal, p 818Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hahn EL (1950) Spin echoes. Phys Rev 80:580–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hennig J, Nauerth A, Friedburg H (1986) RARE imaging: a fast imaging method for clinical MR. Magn Reson Med 3:823–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hennig J, Friedburg H, Stroebel B (1986) Rapid nontomographic approach to MR myelography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 10:375–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hennig J, Friedburg H, Ott D (1987) Fast three-dimensional imaging of cerebrospinal fluid. Magn Reson Med 5:380–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hennig J, Friedburg H (1988) Clinical applications and methodological developments of the RARE technique. Magn Reson Imaging 6:391–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hennig J (1988) Multiecho imaging sequences with low refocusing flip angles. J Magn Reson 78:397–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hennig J, Ott D, Adam T, Friedburg H (1990) Measurement of CSF Flow using an interferographic MR technique based on the RARE-fast imaging sequence. Magn Res Imaging 8:543–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hennig J (1991) Echoes — how to generate, recognize, use or avoid them in MR imaging sequences. I. Fundamental and not so fundamental properties of spin echoes. Concepts in Magn Res 3:125–143; II. Echoes in imaging sequences. Concepts in Magn Res 3:179–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jolesz FA, Jones KM (1993) Fast spin-echo imaging of the brain. Top Magn Reson Imaging 5:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jones KM, Mulkern RV, Mantello MT, Melki PS, Ahn SS, Barnes PD, Jolesz FA (1993) Brain hemorrhage: evaluation with fast spin-echo and conventional dual spin-echo images. Radiology 182:53–58Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Laubenberger J, Büchert M, Schneider B, Blum U, Hennig J, Langer M (1995) Breath-hold projection magnetic resonance-cholangio-pancreaticography (MRCP): a new method for the examination of the bile and pancreatic ducts. Magn Reson Med 33:18–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mansfield P (1977) Multi-planar image formation using NMR spin echoes. J Phys C Solid State Phys 10:L55–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Melki PS, Mulkern RV, Panych LP, Jolesz FA (1991) Comparing the FAISE method with conventional dual-echo sequences. J Magn Res Imaging 1:319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Melki PS, Jolesz FA, Mulkern RV (1992) Partial RF echo planar imaging with the FAISE method. I. Experimental and theoretical assessment of artifact. Magn Reson Med 26:328–341; II. Contrast equivalence with spin-echo sequences. Magn Reson Med 26:342–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mulkern RV, Wong STS, Winalski C, Jolesz FA (1990) Contrast manipulation and artifact assessment of 2D and 3D RARE sequences. Magn Reson Imag 8:557–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Norbash AM, Glover GH, Enzmann DR (1993) Intracerebral lesion contrast with spin-echo and fast spin-echo pulse sequences. Radiology 185:661–665Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oshio K, Jolesz FA, Melki PS et al (1991) T2-weighted thin-section imaging with the multislab three-dimensional RARE-technique. J Magn Res Imaging 1:695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oshio K, Feinberg DA (1991) GRASE (gradient- and spin-echo) imaging: a novel fast MRI technique. Magn Reson Med 20:344–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oshio K, Mulkern RV (1992) Rapid fat/water assessment in knee bone marrow with inner-volume RARE-spectroscopic imaging. J Magn Res Imaging 2:601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Panush D, Fulbright R, Sze G, Smith RC, Constable RT (1993) Inversion-recovery fast spin-echo MR imaging: efficacy in the evaluation of head and neck lesions. Radiology 187:421–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sigmund G, Stoever B, Zimmerhackl LB et al (1991) RARE-MR-urography in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract abnormalities in children. Pediatr Radiol 21:416–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sigmund G, Stoever B, Zimmerhackl LB et al (1991) Cystic diseases of the kidney in children: MRI, including RARE-MR-urography. Eur Radiol 1:27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smith RC, Reinhold C, Lange RC, McCauley TR, Kier R, McCarthy S (1993) Fast spin-echo MR imaging of the female pelvis. I. Use of a whole-volume coil. Radiology 184:665–669Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sze G, Merriam M, Oshio K, Jolesz FA (1992) Fast spin-echo imaging in the evaluation of intradural disease of the spine. AJNR 13:1383–1392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tice HM, Jones KM, Mulkern RV, Schwartz RB, Kalina P, Ahn S, Barnes P, Jolesz FIN (1993) Fast spin-echo imaging of intracranial neoplasms. J Comp Assist Tomogr 17:425–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tien RD, Felsberg GJ, MacFall J (1992) Practical choices of fast spin echo pulse sequence parameters: clinically useful proton density and T2-weighted contrasts. Neuroradiology 35:38–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vinee P, Stoever B, Sigmund G, Laubenberger J, Hauenstein KH, Weyrich G, Hennig J (1992) MR Imaging of the Pericardial Cyst. J Magn Res Imaging 2:593–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wakhloo AK, van Veithoven V, Schumacher M, Krauss J (1991) Evaluation of MR imaging, digital subtraction angiography and CT cisternography in diagnosing CSF fistula. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 111:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Woessner DE (1961) Effects of diffusion in nuclear magnetic resonance spin-echo experiments. J Chem Phys 34:2057–2061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zoarski GH, Mackey JK, Anzai Y, Hanafee WN, Melki PS, Mulkern RV, Jolesz FA, Lufkin RB (1993) Head and neck: initial clinical experience with fast spin-echo MR imaging. Radiology 188:323–327PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Hennig

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations