Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis, Rat
The gross appearance of kidneys, ureters, and bladder depends upon the severity of the disease. In calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, kidneys become grossly enlarged and stippled with yellowish white flecks on their external surfaces and on cut sections (Andrus et al. 1960; Tawashi et al. 1980; Lyon et al. 1966). Hydronephrosis with crystalline sediments and concretions in calyceal fornices and the renal pelvis is common (Andrus et al. 1960). Renal papillary tips may be encrusted with glistening whitish crystalline deposits. Calculi may be present in ureters and bladder. When present in the ureter, calculi cause ureteral obstruction and hydroureter. The most frequent site of obstruction is the junction between the ureter and bladder. There is considerable variation in size, shape, and texture of calculi. They may be single or multiple, sand-like or large, smooth or nodulous or with sharp edges. They are generally hard and heavy and white to yellow.
KeywordsUrinary stone disease urinary lithiasis nephrolithiasis kidney stone disease
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