Induction of Cancer in the Rat Bladder: Pathogenesis, Role of Cell Proliferation, and Relevance to Human Disease
Spontaneous tumors of the lower urinary tract, including the renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra, are uncommon in the rat, except in specific strains (Clayson and Cooper 1970). Strains of rats in which a significant incidence of bladder tumors — either papillomas or carcinomas — has been reported generally are related to those which spontaneously form calculi or are from batches of rats which have been infected with the rat bladder parasite Trichosomoides crassicauda. Numerous agents have been identified which significantly increase the incidence of urothelial tumors in rats; organ-specific carcinogenesis models have been developed during the past three decades. Identification of bladder carcinogens has been aided by numerous epidemiological studies in humans identifying specific chemicals related to the etiology of bladder cancer.
KeywordsBladder Cancer Urinary Bladder Bladder Epithelium Inverted Papilloma Bladder Carcinogenesis
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