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Zellulärer und molekularer Aufbau der intestinalen Schlußleisten

  • G. Kottra
Conference paper

Zusammenfassung

Es ist seit über 100 Jahren bekannt, daß die benachbarten Zellen eines Epithels an ihrem luminalen Pol durch Schlußleisten miteinander verbunden sind [9]. Diese Schlußleisten (“tight junction”, “occluding junction”, zonula occludens) trennen die Flüssigkeitsräume auf der luminalen und serosalen Oberfläche der Epithelschicht voneinander ab und bilden die Grenze zwischen der apikalen und basolateralen Membran jeder Einzelzelle. Über die Rolle der Schlußleisten in der Barrierefunktion des Gastrointestinaltraktes ist neben anderen Quellen [1, 2, 6, 11, 14, 31, 34, 42] auch in dieser Serie berichtet worden [58, 60]. Die wichtige Rolle der Schlußleisten im transepithelialen Ionentransport soll hier nur durch eine Zahl verdeutlicht werden: in den sog. undichten Epithelien (z.B. Dünndarm, Gallenblase, proximaler Tubulus der Niere) fließt bis zu 98% des transepithelialen Ionenstroms an den Zellen vorbei durch die Schlußleisten. Trotz des Interesses zahlreicher Forschungsgruppen ist aber bis heute noch größtenteils ungeklärt, wie die Permeabilitätsbarriere der Schlußleisten auf molekularer Ebene aufgebaut ist und welche Rolle die Schlußleisten bei der physiologischen Regulation des transepithelialen Ionentransports spielen. Dies ist - zumindest teilweise - auf methodische Schwierigkeiten zurückzuführen: im Gegensatz zu Ionenkanälen, die mit der Patch-clamp-Methode isoliert untersucht werden können, existieren funktionierende Schlußleisten nur in intakten Zellverbänden.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

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  • G. Kottra

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