Pancreatitis pp 279-301 | Cite as

Chronic Pancreatitis: Complications

  • P. G. Lankisch
  • Peter A. Banks

Abstract

The complications of acute pancreatitis are well known and have a decisive influence on the prognosis of the disease, whereas the influence of complications of chronic pancreatitis (Table 18.1) on the natural history of chronic pancreatitis is not fully established.

Keywords

Lipase Tuberculosis Smoke Amylase Ileal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Afroudakis A, Kaplowitz N (1981) Liver histopathology in chronic common bile duct stenosis due to chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Hepatology 1: 65–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alexandre J-H, Guerrieri MT (1981) Role of total pancreatectomy in the treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis. World J Surg 5: 369–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alwmark A, Gullstrand P, Ihse I, Joelsson B, Owman T (1981) Regional portal hypertension in chronic pancreatitis. Acta Chir Scand 147: 155–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ammann R (1985) Diagnose und Therapie der alkoholischen chronischen Pankreatitis. Eine kritische Standortbestimmung. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 115 (Suppl 19): 42–51Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ammann R, Miinch R, Largiadèr F, Akovbiantz A, Marincek B (1992) Pancreatic and hepatic abscesses: a late complication in 10 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 103: 560–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ammann RW (1980) Zur Klinik und Differentialdiagnose der chronischen Pankreatitis. Berücksichtigung des Langzeitverlaufs von 258 Patienten. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 110: 1322–1327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ammann RW, Akovbiantz A, Largiadèr F, Schueler G (1984) Course and outcome of chronic pancreatitis. Longitudinal study of a mixed medical-surgical series of 245 patients. Gastroenterology 86: 820–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ammann RW, Berk JE, Fridhandler L, Ueda M, Wegmann W (1973) Hyperamylasemia with carcinoma of the lung. Ann Intern Med 78: 521–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ammann RW, Hammer B, Fumagalli I (1973) Chronic pancreatitis in Zurich, 1963–1972. Clinical findings and follow-up studies of 102 cases. Digestion 9: 404–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ammann RW, Knoblauch M, Mohr P, Deyhle P, Largiadèr F, Akovbiantz A, Schüler G, Schneider J (1980) High incidence of extrapancreatic carcinoma in chronic pancreatitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 15: 395–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ammann RW, Muench R, Otto R, Buehler H, Freiburghaus AU, Siegenthaler W (1988) Evolution and regression of pancreatic calcification in chronic pancreatitis. A prospective long-term study of 107 patients. Gastroenterology 95: 1018–1028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aranha GV, Prinz RA, Esguerra AC, Greenlee HB (1983) The nature and course of cystic pancreatic lesions diagnosed by ultrasound. Arch Surg 118: 486–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baltaxe HA, Leslie EV (1967) Vanishing pancreatic calcifications. A case report. Am J Roentgenol 99: 642–644Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bank S (1986) Chronic pancreatitis: clinical features and medical management. Am J Gastroenterol 81: 153–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bansal P, Sonnenberg A (1995) Pancreatitis is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterology 109: 247–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bars L, Soulé J-C, Morin T, Hioco D, Bader J-P (1978) Pancréatite chronique. Cause unique d’une ostéomalacie sévère. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2: 499–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barthet M, Sahel J, Bodiou-Bertel C, Bernard J-P (1995) Endoscopic transpapillary drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts. Gastrointest Endosc 42: 208–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bartholomew LG, Comfort MW (1956) Chronic pancreatitis without pain. Gastroenterology 31: 727–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Binmoeller KF, Seifert H, Walter A, Soehendra N (1995) Transpapillary and transmural drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts. Gastrointest Endosc 42: 219–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blackstone MO, Mizuno H (1977) Reactive duodenal changes in chronic pancreatitis simulating the contiguous spread of pancreatic carcinoma. Am J Dig Dis 22: 658–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bradley III EL, Clements JL Jr, Gonzalez AC (1979) The natural history of pancreatic pseudocysts: a unified concept of management. Am J Surg 137: 135–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bradley III EL, Salam AA (1978) Hyperbilirubinemia in inflammatory pancreatic disease: natural history and management. Ann Surg 188: 626–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bradley EL (1986) Parapancreatic biliary and intestinal obstruction in chronic obstructive pancreatitis. Is prophylactic bypass necessary? Am J Surg 151: 256–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Byrd BF Jr, Couch OA Jr (1955) Pancreatitis with rupture of spleen and hemorrhagic pleural effusion. JAMA 157: 1112–1113Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cameron JL (1978) Chronic pancreatic ascites and pancreatic pleural effusions. Gastroenterology 74: 134–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Catalano MF, Geenen JE, Schmalz MJ, Johnson GK, Dean RS, Hogan WJ (1995) Treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts with ductal communication by transpapillary pancreatic duct endoprosthesis. Gastrointest Endosc 42: 214–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Catanzaro FP, Abiri M, Allegra S (1968) Spontaneous rupture of spleen and pleural effusion complicating pancreatitis. Rhode Island Med J 51: 328–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chari ST, Mohan V, Pitchumoni CS, Viswanathan M, Madanagopalan N, Lowenfels AB (1994) Risk of pancreatic carcinoma in tropical calcifying pancreatitis: an epidemiologic study. Pancreas 9: 62–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Crass RA, Way LW (1981) Acute and chronic pancreatic pseudocysts are different. Am J Surg 142: 660–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Creutzfeldt W, Fehr H, Schmidt H (1970) Verlaufsbeobachtungen and diagnostische Verfahren bei der chronisch-rezidivierenden and chronischen Pankreatitis. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 100: 1180–1189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    DiMagno EP, Layer P, Clain JE (1993) Chronic pancreatitis. In: Go VLW, DiMagno EP, Gardner JD, Lebenthal E, Reber HA, Scheele GA (eds) The Pancreas: Biology, Pathobiology, and Disease, 2nd edn. Raven Press, New York, pp 665–706Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dreiling DA, Naqvi MA (1969) Peptic ulcer diathesis in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 51: 503–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dutta SK, Bustin MP, Russell RM, Costa BS (1982) Deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins in treated patients with pancreatic insufficiency. Ann Intern Med 97: 549–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dutta SK, Mobrahan S, Iber FL (1978) Associated liver disease in alcoholic pancreatitis. Am J Dig Dis 23: 618–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Epstein O, Chapman RWG, Lake-Bakaar G, Foo AY, Rosalki SB, Sherlock S (1982) The pancreas in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gastroenterology 83: 1177–1182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fernandez E, La Vecchia C, Porta M, Negri E, d’Avanzo B, Boyle P (1995) Pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Pancreas 11: 185–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ferrucci JT Jr, Wittenberg J, Black EB, Kirkpatrick RH, Hall DA (1979) Computed body tomography in chronic pancreatitis. Radiology 130: 175–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fékété F, Laigneau P, Belghiti J (1980) Les hémorragies digestives au cours des pancréatites chroniques. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 4: 551–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gallagher P, Chadwick P, Jones DM, Turner L (1981) Acute pancreatitis associated with campylobacter infection. Br J Surg 68: 383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gardner RJ, Preston FW (1961) Rupture of the spleen associated with pancreatitis. JAMA 177: 784–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Greiner L (1982) Kolonstenose infolge chronischer Pankreatitis. Seltene Differentialdiagnose einer Colitis regionalis Crohn. Med Welt 33: 1632–1633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Greiner L, Schubert E, Franken FH (1983) Koinzidenz von chronischer Pankreatitis and Leberzirrhose bei Alkoholabusus. Eine röntgen-and histomorphologische Studie. Z Gastroenterol 21: 526–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gullo L, Costa PL, Labò G (1977) Chronic pancreatitis in Italy. Aetiological, clinical and histological observations based on 253 cases. Rendic Gastroenterol 9: 97–104Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gullo L, Stella A, Labriola E, Costa PL, Descovich G, Labò G (1982) Cardiovascular lesions in chronic pancreatitis. A prospective study. Dig Dis Sci 27: 716–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gurian LE, Keeffe EB (1982) Pancreatic insufficiency associated with ulcerative colitis and pericholangitis. Gastroenterology 82: 581–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hall RI, Lavelle MI, Venables CW (1982) Chronic pancreatitis as a cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Gut 23: 250–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hammel P, Levy P, Voitot H, Levy M, Vilgrain V, Zins M, Flejou J-F, Molas G, Ruszniewski P, Bernades P (1995) Preoperative cyst fluid analysis is useful for the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the pancreas. Gastroenterology 108: 1230–1235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hancock RJ, Christensen RM, Osier TR, Cassim MM (1973) Stenosis of the colon due to pancreatitis and mimicking carcinoma. Can J Surg 16: 393–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Harris AI, Korsten MA (1976) Acute suppurative cholangitis secondary to calcific pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 71: 847–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hayakawa T, Kondo T, Shibata T, Sugimuto Y, Kitagawa M (1989) Chronic alcoholism and evolution of pain and prognosis in chronic pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci 34: 33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hofer BO, Ryan JA Jr, Freeny PC (1987) Surgical significance of vascular changes in chronic pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 164: 499–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hoffbrand BI (1965) Chronic pancreatitis (? alcoholic) with osteomalacia. Proc Roy Soc Med 58: 697–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hotz J, Goebell H, Herfarth C, Probst M (1977) Massive pancreatic ascites without carcinoma. Report of three cases. Digestion 15: 200–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Itani KMF, Taylor TV (1995) The challenge of therapy for pancreatitis-related common bile duct stricture. Am J Surg 170: 543–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kalvaria I, Labadarios D, Shephard GS, Visser L, Marks IN (1986) Biochemical vitamin E deficiency in chronic pancreatitis. Int J Pancreatol 1: 119–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kimura Y, Yamamoto T, Zenda S, Kawamura E, Suzuki E (1987) Pancreatic pleural fistula: demonstration by computed tomography after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. Am J Gastroenterol 82: 790–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kondo T, Hayakawa T, Noda A, Ito K, Yamazaki Y, Iinuma Y, Okumura N, Sakakibara A, Mizuno R, Naruse S (1981) Follow-up study of chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterol Jpn 16: 46–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Köhler H, Becker HD (1984) Die Pancreaticorrhagie. Ein Beitrag zur Differentialdiagnose der oberen gastrointestinalen Blutung. Chirurg 55: 526–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lamotte-Barrillon S, Bernier JJ, Tricoire J, Labrousse C (1964) Grande ostéomalacie et pancréatite calcifiante. Presse Med 72: 3441–3445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lankisch PG (1990) The spleen in inflammatory pancreatic disease. Gastroenterology 98: 509–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lankisch PG, Burchard-Reckert S, Petersen M, Lehnick D, Schirren CA, Stöckmann F, Köhler H (1996) Etiology and age have only a limited influence on the course of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas 13: 344–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lankisch PG, Creutzfeldt W (1987) Exokrine Pankreasinsuffizienz bei primär sklerosierender Cholangitis. Z Gastroenterol 25: 175–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lankisch PG, Lopez E, Winckler K, Schuster R (1976) Kolonstenosen nach Pankreatitis. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 106: 1243–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lankisch PG, Löhr-Happe A, Otto J, Creutzfeldt W (1993) Natural course in chronic pancreatitis. Pain, exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency and prognosis of the disease. Digestion 54: 148–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lankisch PG, Otto J, Löhr A, Schirren C-A, Schuster R (1989) Pancreatic calcifications in patients with normal pancreatic function. Int J Pancreatol 5: 281–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lemaitre G, L’Herminé C, Maillard J-P, Toison F (1971) “L’hypertension portale segmentaire” des pancréatites. Aspects angiographiques. Lille Med 16: 928–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lewandrowski K, Lee J, Southern J, Centeno B, Warshaw A (1995) Cyst fluid analysis in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cysts: a new approach to the preoperative assessment of pancreatic cystic lesions. Am J Roentgenol 164: 815–819Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lewandrowski KB, Southern JF, Pins MR, Compton CC, Warshaw AL (1993) Cyst fluid analysis in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. A comparison of pseudocysts, serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic neoplasms, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Ann Surg 217: 41–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lopez JJ, Wright JA, Hammer RA; Ertan A (1992) Chronic pancreatitis is associated with a high prevalence of giardiasis. Can J Gastroenterol 6: 73–76Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P, Cavallini G, Ammann RW, Lankisch PG, Andersen JR, DiMagno EP, Andrén-Sandberg A, Domellöf L, International Pancreatitis Study Group (1993) Pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med 328: 1433–1437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Löhr A (1990) Der natürliche Verlauf der chronischen Pankreatitis. Die Entwicklung der Leitsymptome Schmerzen, exokrine and endokrine Pankreasinsuffizienz and die Prognose der Erkrankung. Med Diss GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Löhr-Happe A, Peiper M, Lankisch PG (1994) Natural course of operated pseudocysts in chronic pancreatitis. Gut 35: 1479–1482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Machado MCC, Monteiro da Cunha JE, Bacchella T, de Barros Mott C, Duarte I, Bettarello A (1984) Acute pancreatic necrosis in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci 29: 709–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mahlke R, Elbrechtz F, Petersen M, Schafmayer A, Lankisch PG (1995) Acute abdominal pain in chronic pancreatitis: hemorrhage from a pseudoaneurysm? Z Gastroenterol 33: 404–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Makrauer FL, Antonioli DA, Banks PA (1982) Duodenal stenosis in chronic pancreatitis. Clinico-pathological correlations. Dig Dis Sci 27: 525–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Marks IN, Bank S, Barbezat GO (1976) Alkoholpankreatitis - Ätiologie, klinische Formen, Kornplikationen. Leber Magen Darm 6: 257–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Marks IN, Bank S, Louw JH, Farman J (1967) Peptic ulceration and gastrointestinal bleeding in pancreatitis. Gut 8: 253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Marks IN, Girdwood AH, Bank S, Louw JH (1980) The prognosis of alcohol-induced calcific pancreatitis. S Afr Med J 57: 640–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Masoero G, Spinaci S, Arossa W, Andriulli A, Gaia E, de Pretis G, Dobrilla G, de la Pierre M (1984) Pulmonary involvement in chronic pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci 29: 896–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mathai V, Banerjee Jesudason SR, Muthusami JC, Kuruvilla R, Idikula J, Sada P (1994) Chronic pancreatitis caused by intraductal hydatic cysts of the pancreas. Br J Surg 81: 1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    McConnell DB, Gregory JR, Sasaki TM, Vetto RM (1982) Pancreatic pseudocyst. Am J Surg 143: 599–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Miyake H, Harada H, Kunichika K, Ochi K, Kimura I (1987) Clinical course and prognosis of chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas 2: 378–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Moossa AR, Gadd MA (1985) Isolated splenic vein thrombosis. World J Surg 9: 384–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Möhr P, Ammann R, Largiadèr F, Knoblauch M, Schmid M, Akovbiantz A (1975) Pankreaskarzinom bei chronischer Pankreatitis. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 105: 590–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mörl M, Piechulek H (1987) Leberschäden bei chronisch-kalzifizierter, alkoholinduzierter Pankreatitis. Z Gastroenterol 25: 325–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Neglia JP, FitzSimmons SC, Maisonneuve P, Schöni MH, Schöni-Affolter F, Corey M, Lowenfels AB, Cystic Fibrosis and Cancer Study Group (1995) The risk of cancer among patients with cystic fibrosis. N Engl J Med 332: 494–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Neher M, Mangold G, Schönborn H (1977) Akute hämorrhagisch-nekrotisierende Verlaufsformen der chronisch rezidivierenden Pankreatitis. Munch Med Wochenschr 119: 191–192Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Niemelä S, Lehtola J, Karttunen T, Lähde S (1989) Pancreatitis in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Hepatogastroenterology 36: 175–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Olsen TS (1978) The incidence and clinical relevance of chronic inflammation in the pancreas in autopsy material. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A 86: 361–365Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Owens JL Jr, Howard JM (1958) Pancreatic calcification: a late sequel in the natural history of chronic alcoholism and alcoholic pancreatitis. Ann Surg 147: 326–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Palmer KR, Cotton PB, Chapman M (1984) Pancreatogram in cholestasis. Gut 25: 424–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pedrazzoli S, Petrin P, De Marchi L, Miotto D, Bonadimani B, Costantino V (1986) An unusual complication of chronic pancreatitis: a recanalized portal tree communicating with a pancreatic pseudocyst. Am J Gastroenterol 81: 698–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Petrozza JA, Dutta SK, Latham PS, Iber FL, Gadacz TR (1984) Prevalence and natural history of distal common bile duct stenosis in alcoholic pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci 29: 890–895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Prost A, Hanniche M, Bordier P, Miravet L, de Sèze S, Rambaud J-C (1975) Ostéomalacie et pancréatite chronique associée. Cinq observations. Nouv Presse Med 4: 1561–1566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ravey M, Mouktar M (1973) Sténose de l’angle colique gauche secondaire à une pancréatite chronique. J Chir (Paris) 105: 553–560Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Remington JH, Mayo CW, Dockerty MB (1947) Stenosis of the colon secondary to chronic pancreatitis. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin 22: 260–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Renner IG, Savage III WT, Stace NH, Pantoja JL, Schultheis WM, Peters RL (1984) Pancreatitis associated with alcoholic liver disease. A review of 1022 autopsy cases. Dig Dis Sci 29: 593–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rignault D, Mine J, Moine D (1968) Splenoportographic changes in chronic pancreatitis. Surgery 63: 571–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ring EJ, Eaton SB Jr, Ferrucci JT Jr, Short WF (1973) Differential diagnosis of pancreatic calcification. Am J Roentgenol 117: 446–452Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rocca G, Gaia E, Iuliano R, Caselle MT, Rocca N, Calcamuggi G, Emanuelli G (1987) Increased incidence of cancer in chronic pancreatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 9: 175–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rösch J, Herfort K (1962) Contribution of splenoportography to the diagnosis of diseases of the pancreas. I. Tumorous diseases. Acta Med Scand 171: 251–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rösch J, Herfort K (1962) Contribution of splenoportography to the diagnosis of diseases of the pancreas. II. Inflammatory diseases. Acta Med Scand 171: 263–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Saebo A, Lassen J (1992) Acute and chronic pancreatic disease associated with Yersinia enterocolitica infection: a Norwegian 10-year follow-up study of 458 hospitalized patients. J Intern Med 231: 537–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sandblom P (1970) Gastrointestinal hemorrhage through the pancreatic duct. Ann Surg 171: 61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sarles H, Capitaine Y (1973) Complications ostéo-articulaires au cours de deux cas de pancréatite chronique calcifiante. Traitement par wirsungo-jéjunostomie. Arch Franc Maladies Appareil Dig 62: 61–65Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schulze S, Thorsgaard Pedersen N, Jorgensen MJ, Mr llmann K-M, Rune SJ (1983) Association between duodenal bulb ulceration and reduced exocrine pancreatic function. Gut 24: 781–783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schwartz S, Nadelhaft J (1957) Simulation of colonic obstruction at the splenic flexure by pancreatitis: Roentgen features. Am J Roentgenol 78: 607–616Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Schwartz SI, Dale WA (1958) Primary sclerosing cholangitis. Review and report of six cases. Arch Surg 77: 439–450Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Scott J, Summerfield JA, Elias E, Dick R, Sherlock S (1977) Chronic pancreatitis: a cause of cholestasis. Gut 18: 196–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Seyrig J-A, Jian R, Modigliani R, Golfain D, Florent C, Messing B, Bitoun A (1985) Idiopathic pancreatitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci 30: 1121–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Smits ME, Rauws EAJ, Tytgat GNJ, Huibregtse K (1995) The efficacy of endoscopic treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts. Gastrointest Endosc 42: 202–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sorgman JA, Langevin E, Banks PA (1992) Urinoma masquerading as pancreatic pseudocyst. Int J Pancreatol 11: 195–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sperti C, Pasquali C, Costantino V, Perasole A, Liessi G, Pedrazzoli S (1995) Solitary true cyst of the pancreas in adults. Report of three cases and review of the literature. Int J Pancreatol 18: 161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Stahl TJ, O’Connor Allen M, Ansel HJ, Vennes JA (1988) Partial biliary obstruction caused by chronic pancreatitis. An appraisal of indications for surgical biliary drainage Ann Surg 207: 26–32Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Steinbach HL, Kolb FO, Crane JT (1959) Unusual roentgen manifestations of osteomalacia. Am J Roentgenol 82: 875–886Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tenner S, Roston A, Lichtenstein D, Sica G, Carr-Locke D, Banks PA (1995) Von Hippel-Lindau disease complicated by acute pancreatitis and Evan’s syndrome. Int J Pancreatol 18: 271–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Thorsgaard Pedersen N, Andersen BN, Pedersen G, Worning H (1982) Chronic pancreatitis in Copenhagen. A retrospective study of 64 consecutive patients. Scand J Gastroenterol 17: 925–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tim LO, Segal I (1978) Exocrine pancreatic function in patients with idiopathic necrosis of the femoral head. S Afr Med J 54: 441–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Tokoo M, Oguchi H, Kawa S, Homma T, Nagata A (1992) Eosinophilia associated with chronic pancreatitis: an analysis of 122 patients with definite chronic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol 87: 455–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Toskes PP, Deren JJ, Fruiterman J, Conrad ME (1973) Specificity of the correction of vitamin B12 malabsorption by pancreatic extract and its clinical significance. Gastroenterology 65: 199–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Toskes PP, Greenberger NJ (1983) Acute and chronic pancreatitis. Disease-a-Month 29: 1–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Tucker DH, Moore IB (1963) Vanishing pancreatic calcification in chronic pancreatitis. A sign of pancreatic carcinoma. N Engl J Med 268: 31–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Vantini I, Piubello W, Scuro LA, Benini P, Talamini G, Benini L, Micciolo R, Cavallini G (1982) Duodenal ulcer in chronic relapsing pancreatitis. Digestion 24: 23–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Vogel H, Sjiariel M, Maas R, Klapdor R (1983) Pankreaspseudozysteneinbruch in Abdominal-organe. Inn Med 10: 243–246Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Wallner B, Friedrich JM, Pietrzyk C (1988) Knöcherne Läsionen bei chronischer Pankreatitis. Fortschr Röntgenstr 149: 289–293Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Warshaw AL, Compton CC, Lewandrowski K, Cardenosa G, Mueller PR (1990) Cystic tumors of the pancreas. New clinical, radiologic, and pathologic observations in 67 patients. Ann Surg 212: 432–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Warshaw AL, Jin G, Ottinger LW (1987) Recognition and clinical implications of mesenteric and portal vein obstruction in chronic pancreatitis. Arch Surg 122: 410–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Warshaw AL, McChesney T, Evans GW, McCarthy IIF (1972) Intrasplenic dissection by pancreatic pseudocysts. N Engl J Med 287: 72–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Warshaw AL, Rutledge PL (1987) Cystic tumors mistaken for pancreatic pseudocysts. Ann Surg 205: 393–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Weissmann D, Lewandrowski K, Godine J, Centeno B, Warshaw A (1994) Pancreatic cystic islet-cell tumors. Clinical and pathologic features in two cases with cyst fluid analysis. Int J Pancreatol 15: 75–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Whalley RC (1967) Pseudopancreatic cyst. Report of a case of spontaneous intra-gastric rupture associated with ruptured spleen. Br J Clin Pract 21: 567–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Wilson C, Auld CD, Schlinkert R, Hasan AH, Imrie CW, Macsween RNM, Carter DC (1989) Hepatobiliary complications in chronic pancreatitis. Gut 30: 520–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wisloff F, Jakobsen J, Osnes M (1982) Stenosis of the common bile duct in chronic pancreatitis. Br J Surg 69: 52–54Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Worning H (1984) Chronic pancreatitis: pathogenesis, natural history and conservative treatment. Clin Gastroenterol 13: 871–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Wright JA, Lopez J, Daum RS, Ertan A (1988) Chronic pancreatitis is associated with a high prevalence of giardiasis. Gastroenterology 94: A503 (abstr)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. G. Lankisch
    • 1
  • Peter A. Banks
    • 2
  1. 1.Medizinische KlinikStädtisches KrankenhausLüneburgGermany
  2. 2.Gastroenterology DivisionBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations