The Fragile Balance Between Cells, Organisms and Environment

  • D. Tibboel
  • E. V. D. Voort
Part of the Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (UICM, volume 25)


Along different lines specialized units have been instituted providing intensive care for children with a large variety of bodyweight, age and disease entities. Not only the diseases treated in these units are very diverse, the same is through for the medical background of the physicians who are primary responsible for the care of these critically ill children. Due to local differences in set up pediatricians, pediatric surgeons or anesthesiologists have been appointed chairman of a specialized intensive care unit. Although new modes of treatment are continuously developed, in many instances the treatment modalities are symptomatic and as such not always based on a profound scientific basis.


Nitric Oxide Cystic Fibrosis Septic Shock Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Editorial: Looking to Development’s Future. Science 1994;266:561–614.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Paigen K (1995) A Miracle Enough: the Power of Mice. Nature Med 1:215–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Culliton BJ (1995) Molecular medicine in a changing world. Nature Med 1:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kirschner MW, Marincola E, Olmsted Teisberg E (1994) The role of biomedical research in health care reform. Science 266:49–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crystal RG (1995) The gene as the drug. Nature Med 1:15–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Skuse GR, Ludlow JW (1995) Tumour suppressor genes in disease and therapy. Lancet 345:902–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schlag G, Redl H, Hallstrom S (1991) The cell in shock: the origin of multiple organ failure. Resuscitation 21:137–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Babcock GT, Wikstrom M (1992) Oxygen activation and the conservation of energy in cell respiration. Nature 356:301–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wagner PD (1995) Limitations of oxygen transport to the cell. Intensive Care Med 21:391–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Giaid A, Saleh D (1995) Reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the lungs of patients with pulmonary hypertension. N Eng J Med 333:214–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Loscalzo J (1995) Editorial: Nitric Oxide and Vascular Disease. N Engl J Med 333:251–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fink MP, Payen D (1996) The role of nitric oxide in sepsis and ARDS. Intensive Care Med 22:158–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pittet D, Rangel-Frausto S, Li N et al. (1995) Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock: incidence, morbidities and outcomes in surgical ICU patients. Intensive Care Med 21:302–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lamy M, Deby-Dupont G (1995) Is sepsis a mediator-inhibitor mismatch ? Intensive Care Med 21:S250-S257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Parillo JE (1993) Pathogenetic mechanisms of septic shock. N Engl J Med 328:1471–1477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Giroir BP (1993) Mediators of septic shock: New approaches for interrupting the endogenous inflammatory cascade. Crit Care Med 21:780–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kollef MH, Schuster DP (1995) The acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 332:27–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dreyfuss D, Saumon G (1992) Barotrauma is volutrauma, but which volume is the one responsible ? Intensive Care Med 18:139–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dreyfuss D, Saumon G (1994) Should the lung be rested or recruited ? The Charybdis and Scylla of Ventilator Management. Am J Respir Care Med 149:1066–1068.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kanto WP (1994) A decade of experience with neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Pediatr 124:335–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Walsh-Sukys M, Stork EK, Martin RJ (1994) Neonatal ECMO: Iron lung of the 1990’s? J Pediatr 124:427–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Curtis S (1991) Perfluorocarbon-associated gas exchange: A hybrid approach to mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 19:600–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shaffer TH, Wolfson MR, Clark LC (1992) Liquid Ventilation. Pediatr Pulm 14:102–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moler FW, Palmisano J, Custer JR (1993) Extracorporeal life support for pediatric respiratory failure: Predictors of survival from 220 patients. Crit Care Med 21:1604–1611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Adzick NS, Harrison MR (1994) Fetal surgical therapy. Lancet 343:897–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Luks FI (1995) Fetal surgery; New techniques have given surgeons a second chance. Br Med J 311:1449–1453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Starlz TE, Todo S, Tzakis A et al. (1993) The transplantation of gastrointestinal organs. Gastroenterology 104:673–679.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beath SV, Brook GD, Kelly DA et al. (1993) Successful liver transplantation in babies under 1 year. Br Med J 307:825–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ross RJM, Rodrigues-Arnao J, Bentham J et al. (1993) The role of insulin, growth hormone and IGF-I as anabolic agents in the critically ill. Intensive Care Med 19:S54-S57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hodson ME, Shah PL (1995) DNase trials in cystic fibrosis. Eur Respir J 8:1786–1791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Outcome Assessment of Pediatric Intensive Care; Principles and Applications. Gemke RJBJ, Thesis, Utrecht (1994).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Horbar JD, Onstad L, Wright E et al. (1993) Predicting mortality risk for infants weighing 501 to 1500 grams at birth: A national institutes of health neonatal research network report. Crit Care Med 21:12–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bion J (1993) Outcomes in intensive care. Br Med J 307:953–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sanderson C, Hall DMB (1995) The outcomes of neonatal intensive care. Br Med J 310:681–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Smit R (1995) Rationing: the debate we have to have. Br Med J 310:686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Petros AJ, Marshall JC, van Saene HKF (1995) Should morbidity replace mortality as an endpoint for clinical trials in intensive care ? Lancet 345:369–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Franklin C (1993) Basic concepts and fundamental issues in technology assessment. Intensive Care Med 19:117–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lemeshow S, Klar J, Teres D (1995) Outcome Prediction for Individual Intensive Care Patients: useful, misused, or abused ? Intensive Care Med 21:770–776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Granger CE, George C, Shelly MP (1995) The management of bereavement on intensive care units. Intensive Care Med 21:429–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Tibboel
  • E. V. D. Voort

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations