New Aspects of Oral Viral Diseases

  • C. Scully
Part of the Current Topics in Pathology book series (CT PATHOLOGY, volume 90)

Abstract

The past decade has seen intense and increasing interest in the oral health care consequences of viral infection, particularly the possible relationships between viruses and oral diseases — especially malignant neoplasms, the possible infectivity of saliva and oral secretions and, latterly, the oral consequences of infection with the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV).

Keywords

Hepatitis Oncol Interferon Levodopa Milo 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdelsayd RA (1991) Study of human papillomavirus in oral epithelial dysplasia and epidermoid carcinoma in the absence of tobacco and alcohol use. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 71: 730–732Google Scholar
  2. Ablashi DV, Agut H, Berneman Z et al (1993) Human herpesvirus 6 variants–a nomenclature. Arch Virol 129: 363–366Google Scholar
  3. Ablashi DV, Josephs SF, Buchbinder A et al (1988) Human B lymphotropic virus (human herpesvirus-6). J Virol Methods 21: 29–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ablashi DV, Salahuddin SZ, Josephs SG et al (1991) Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). In Vivo 5: 193–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ades AE, Peckham CS, Dale GE, Best JM, Jeansson S (1989) Prevalence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in pregnant women and estimated rates of infection. Epidemiol Commun Health 43: 53–60Google Scholar
  6. Adler SP, Chandrika T, Lawrence L, Baggett J (1982) Cytomegalovirus infections in neonates acquired by blood transfusion. Pediatr Infect Dis 2: 114–118Google Scholar
  7. Adler-Storthz K, Newland JR, Tessin BA, Yeudall WA, Shillitoe EJ (1986a) Identification of human papillomavirus types in oral verruca vulgaris. J Oral Pathol 15: 230–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Adler-Storthz K, Newland JR, Tessin BA, Yeudall WA, Shillitoe EJ (1986b) Human papillomavirus type 2 DNA in oral verrucous carcinoma. J Oral Pathol 15: 472–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Akinwande J, Odukoya O, Nwoku AL, Taiwo EO (1986) Burkitt’s lymphoma of the jaws in Lagos: 10 year review. J Maxillofac Surg 14: 323–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Albrecht T, Boldogh I, Fons M, Abubakar S, Deng CZ (1990) Cell activation signals and the pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus. Intervirology 31: 68–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Alessi E, Berti E, Cusini M et al (1990) Oral hairy leukoplakia. J Am Acad Dermatol 22: 79–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Alsip GR, Ench Y, Sumaya CV, Boswell RN (1988) Increased Epstein-Barr virus DNA in oropha-ryngeal secretions from patients with AIDS, AIDS-related complex, or asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infections. J Infect Dis 157: 1072–1076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ambroziak JA, Blackbourn DJ, Herndier B et al (1995) Herpesvirus-like sequences in HIV-infected and uninfected Kaposi’s sarcoma patients. Science 268: 582–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Anderson JA, Irish JC, McLachlin CM, Ngan BY (1994) H-ras oncogene mutation and human papillomavirus infection in oral carcinomas. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 120: 755–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Andriolo M, Wolf JW, Rosenberg JS (1986) AIDS and AIDS-related complex: oral manifestations and treatment. J Am Dent Assoc 113: 586–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Appleton AL, Sviland L (1993) Pathogenesis of GVHD: role of herpesviruses. Bone Marrow Transplant 11: 349–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Archer CB, Spittle MF, Smith NP (1989) Kaposi’s sarcoma in a homosexual–10 years on. Clin Exp Dermatol 14: 233–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ashley R, Wald A, Corey L (1994) Cervical antibodies in patients with oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection: local anamnestic responses after genital HSV-2 infection. J Virol 68: 5284–5286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Aslanzadeh J, Helm KF, Espy MJ, Muller SA, Smith TF (1992) Detection of HSV-specific DNA in biopsy tissue of patients with erythema multiforme by polymerase chain reaction. Br J Dermatol 126: 19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Balfour HH Jr, Englund JA (1989) Antiviral drugs in pediatrics. Am J Dis Child 143: 1307–1316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Banks TA, Rouse BT (1992) Herpesviruses: immune escape artists? Clin Infect Dis 14: 933–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Barkvoll P, Attramadal A (1987) Recurrent herpes labialis in a military brass band. Scand J Dent Res 95: 256–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Barrett AP (1986) A long-term prospective clinical study of orofacial herpes simplex virus infections in acute leukaemia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 61: 149–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Barrett AP (1987) A long-term prospective clinical study of oral complications during conventional chemotherapy for acute leukemia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 63: 313–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Barrett AP, Katelaris CH, Morris JG, Schifter M (1993) Zoster sine herpete of the trigeminal nerve. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 75: 173–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Beaudenon S, Praetorius F, Kremsdorf D et al (1987) A new type of human papillomavirus associated with oral focal epithelial hyperplasia. J Invest Dermatol 88: 130–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Beauparlant P, Alfieri C, Joncas JH (1994) Radioimmunoprecipitation in the diagnosis of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. J Med Viro! 42: 241–246Google Scholar
  28. Becker J, Leser U, Marschall M et al (1991) Expression of proteins encoded by Epstein-Barr virus trans-activator genes depends on the differentiation of epithelial cells in oral hairy leukoplakia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 8332–8336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Belshe RB (ed) (1984) Textbook of human virology. PBS, LittletonGoogle Scholar
  30. Belton CM, Eversole LR (1986) Oral hairy leukoplakia: ultrastuctural features. J Oral Pathol 15: 493–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Beral V, Peterman TA, Berkelman RL, Jaffe HW (1990) Kaposi’s sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection? Lancet 335: 123–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Beral V, Peterman T, Berkelman R, Jaffe HW (1991) AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Lancet 337: 805–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bergmann OJ, Mogensen SC, Ellegaard J (1990) Herpes simplex virus and intraoral ulcers in immunocompromised patients with haematologic malignancies. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 9: 184–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Bergstrom T, Lycke E (1990) Neuroinvasion by herpes simplex virus. An in vitro model for characterisation of neurovirulent strains. J Gen Virol 71: 405–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Berman S, Jensen J (1990) Cytomegalovirus induced osteomyelitis in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. South Med J 83: 1231–1232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bernard HV, Apt D (1994) Transcriptional control and cell type specificity of HPV gene expression. Arch Dematol 130: 210–215Google Scholar
  37. Bernstein DI, Stanberry LR, Harrison CJ et al (1987) Antibody response to herpes simplex glycoprotein D: effects of acyclovir and relation to recurrence. J Infect Dis 156: 423–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Berry NJ, Burns DM, Wannamethee G et al (1988) Seroepidemiologic studies on the acquisition of antibodies to cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and human immunodeficiency virus among general hospital patients and those attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. J Med Virol 24: 385–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Biberfeld P, Petren AL, Eklund A et al (1988) Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6, HLBV) in sarcoidosis and lymphoproliferative disorders. J Virol Methods 21: 49–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Birek C, Patterson B, Maximiw WC, Minden MD (1989) EBV and HSV infections in a patient who had undergone bone marrow transplantation: oral manifestations and diagnosis by in situ nucleic acid hybridization. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 68: 612–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Birx DL, Robert RR, Taroto G (1986) Defective regulation of Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS) or AIDS-related disorders. N Engl J Med 314: 874–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Black JB, Inoue N, Kite-Powell K, Zaki S, Pellett PE (1993) Frequent isolation of human herpes-virus 7 from saliva. Virus Res 29: 91–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Blackwelder WC, Dolin R, Mittal KK, McNamara PM, Payne FJ (1982) A population study of herpes virus infections and HLA antigens. Am J Epidemiol 115: 569–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Blyth WA, Hill TJ (1984) Establishment, maintenance and control of herpes simplex virus (HSV 1) latency. In: Rouse B, Lopez T (eds) Immunobiology of herpes simplex virus infection. CRC Press, Boca-Raton, pp 9–32Google Scholar
  45. Boshoff C, Whitby D, Hatziioannou T et al (1995) Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus in HIV-negative Kaposi sarcoma. Lancet 345: 1043–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Brachman DG, Graves D, Vokes E, Beckett M, Haraf D, Montag A, Dunphy E, Mick R, Yandell D, Weichselbaum RR (1992) Occurrence of p53 gene deletions and human papilloma virus infection in human head and neck cancer. Cancer Res 52: 48–32Google Scholar
  47. Brahim JS, Katz RW, Roberts MW (1988) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the hard palate mucosa and buccal gingival associated with AIDS. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 46: 328–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Brandsma JL, Abramson AL (1989) Association of papillomavirus with cancers of the head and neck. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 115: 621–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Brehmer-Andersson E, Lucht E, Lindskog S, Ekman M, Biberfeld P (1994) Oral hairy leukoplakia: pathogenetic aspects and significance of the lesion. Acta Derm Venereol 74: 81–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Brice SL, Krzemien D, Weston WL et al (1989) Detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in cutaneous lesions of erythema multiforme. J Invest Dermatol 93: 193Google Scholar
  51. Brice SL, Stockert SS, Bunker JD, Bloomfield D, Huff JC, Norris DA, Weston WL (1993) The herpes-specific immune response of individuals with herpes-associated erythema multiforme compared with that of individuals with recurrent herpes labialis. Arch Dermatol Res 285: 193–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Brockmeyer NH, Kreuzfelder E, Mertins L, Daecke D, Boos M (1989) Zidovudine therapy of asymptomatic HIV 1-infected patients and combined zidovudine-acyclovir therapy of HIV 1-infected patients with oral hairy leukoplakia. J Invest Dermatol 92: 647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Brunell PA, Novelli VM, Keller PM, Ellis RW (1987) Antibodies to the three major glycoproteins of varicella-zoster virus: search for the relevant host immune response. J Infect Dis 156: 430–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Bryson YJ (1988) Promising new antiviral drugs. J Am Acad Dermatol 18: 212–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Burg G, Sobetzko R (1990) Oral florid papillomatosis: is etretinate therapy indicated? Hautarzt 41: 314–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Burt RD, Vaughan TL, Nisperos B, Swanson M, Berwick M (1994) A protective association between the HLA-A2 antigen and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in US caucasians. Int J Cancer 56: 465–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Carbone A, Tirelli U, Vaccher E et al (1991) A clinico-pathologic study of lymphoid neoplasias associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Italy. Cancer 68: 842–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Cesarman E, Chang Y, Moore PS, Said JW, Knowles DM (1995) Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDs-related body-cavity-based lymphomas. N Engl J Med 332: 1186–1191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Chang KW, Chang CS, Lai KS, Chou MJ, Choo KB (1989) High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and possible association with betel quid chewing and smoking in oral epidermoid carcinomas in Taiwan. J Med Virol 28: 57–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Chang F, Kosunen I, Kosma VM, Syrjanen S, Lahtinen J, Syrjanen K (1990a) Verrucous carcinoma of the anus containing human papillomavirus type 16 DNA detected by in situ hybridization, a case report. Genitourin Med 66: 342–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Chang F, Syrjanen S, Nuutinen J, Karja J, Syrjanen K (1990b) Detection of human papillomavirus ( HPV) DNA in oral squamous cell carcinomas by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Arch Dermatol Res 282: 493–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Chang F, Syrjanen S, Kellokoski J, Syrjanen K (1991) Human papillomavirus ( HPV) infections and their associations with oral disease. J Oral Pathol Med 20: 305–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Chang F, Syrjanen S, Mang L, Syrjanen K (1992) Infectious agents in the etiology of esophageal cancer. Gastroenterology 103: 1336–1348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Chang Y (1994) Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Science 266: 1865–1869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Chang Y, Cesarman E, Pessin MS et al (1994) Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Science 266: 1865–1869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Choo QL, Kuo G, Weiner AJ, Overby LR, Bradley DW, Houghton M (1989) Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 244: 359–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Christenson B, Bottiger M, Svensson A, Jeansson S (1992) A 15-year surveillance study of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in a cohort of young girls. J Infect 25: 147–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Cleveland DB, Chen SY, Allen CM, Ahing SI, Svirsky JA (1994) Adult rhabdomyoma: a light microscopic, ultrastructural, virologic, and immunologic analysis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 77: 147–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Cohen S, Williamson GM (1991) Stress and infectious disease in humans. Psychol Bull 109: 5–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Cohen SG, Greenberg MS (1985) Chronic herpes simplex virus infection in immunocompromised patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 59: 465–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Collandre H, Ferris S, Grau O et al (1995) Kaposi’s sarcoma and new herpesvirus. Lancet 345: 10–43Google Scholar
  72. Colmenero C, Gamallo G, Pintado V, Patron M, Sierra J, Valencia E (1991) AIDS related lymphoma of the oral cavity. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 20: 2–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Corey L (1988) First episode, recurrent, and asymptomatic herpes simplex infections. J Am Acad Dermatol 18: 169–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Corso B, Eversole LR, Hutt-Fletcher L (1989) Hairy leukoplakia: Epstein-Barr virus receptors on oral keratinocyte plasma membranes. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 67: 416–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Cox MF, Eveson J, Maitland N, Scully C (1991a) Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in an odontogenic keratocyst. J Oral Pathol Med 20: 143–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Cox MF, Scully C, Maitland NJ (1991b) Viruses in the aetiology of oral cancer? Examination of the evidence. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 29: 381–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Cox MF, Eveson J, Porter SR, Maitland NJ, Scully C (1992) Human papilloma virus type 16 DNA in oral white sponge naevus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 73: 476–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Cox MF, Maitland NJ, Scully C (1993) Human herpes simplex-1 and papillomavirus type 16 homologous DNA sequences in normal, premalignant and malignant oral mucosa. Oral oncology. Eur J Cancer 29B: 215–220Google Scholar
  79. Crooks RJ, Jones DA, Fiddian AP (1991) Zoster-associated chronic pain: an overview of clinical trials with acyclovir. Scand J Infect [Suppl] 78: 62–68Google Scholar
  80. Crumpacker CS (1988) Significance of resistance of herpes simplex virus to acyclovir. J Am Acad Dermatol 18: 190–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Daniels TE, Sylvester RA, Silverman S, Dolando V, Talal N (1974) Tubuloreticular “virus-like” structures within labial salivary glands in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 17: 593–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Daniels TE, Greenspan D, Greenspan JS (1987) Absence of Langerhans’s cells in oral hairy leukoplakia, an AIDS-associated lesion. J Invest Dermatol 87: 178–182Google Scholar
  83. Darragh TM, Egbert BM, Berger TG, Yen TS (1991) Identification of herpes simplex virus DNA in lesions of erythema multiforme by the polymerase chain reaction. J Am Acad Dermatol 24: 23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Davison AJ, Edson CM, Ellis RW et al (1986) New common nomenclature for glycoprotein genes of varicella-zoster virus and their glycosylated products. J Virol 57: 1195–1197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. De Clere QE (1988) Antiviral chemotherapy today and tomorrow. Ann Intern Med 139: 84–86Google Scholar
  86. Deacon EM, Mathews JB, Potts AJC, Hamburger J, Bevan IS (1991) Detection of Epstein-Barr virus antigens and DNA using immunocytochemistry and polymerase chain reaction: possible relationship with Sjogren’s syndrome. J Pathol 163: 351–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Deacon LM, Shattles WG, Mathews JG, Young LS, Venables JW (1992) Frequency of EBV-DNA detection in Sjogren’s syndrome. Am J Med 92: 453–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Dekmezian RH, Batsakis JG, Goepfert H (1987) In situ hybridization of papillomavirus DNA in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 113: 819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Detjen PF, Patterson R, Noskin GA, Phair JP, Loyd SO (1992) Herpes simplex virus association with recurrent Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Arch Intern Med 152: 1513–1516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. De Villiers EM (1989a) Heterogeneity of the human papillomavirus group. J Virol 65: 4898–4903Google Scholar
  91. De Villiers EM (1989b) Papilloma viruses in cancers and papillomas of the aerodigestive tract. Biomed Pharmacother 43: 31–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. De Villiers EM, Hirsch-Benham A, Von Knebel-Doebertiz C et al (1989) Two newly identified human papillomavirus types (HPV 40 and 57) isolated from mucosal lesions. Virology 171: 248–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Diaz-Mitoma F, Ruiz A, Flowerdew G et al (1990) High levels of Epstein-Barr virus in the oropharynx: a predictor of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Med Virol 31: 69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Dimery IW, Lee JS, Blick M, Pearson G, Spitzer G, Hong WK (1988) Association of the Epstein-Barr virus with lymphoepithelioma of the thymus. Cancer 61: 2475–2480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. DiPaolo JA, Woodworth CD, Popescu NC, Koval DL, Lopez JV, Doniger J (1990) HSV-2-induced tumorigenicity in HPV-16-immortalized human genital keratinocytes. Virol 177: 777–779Google Scholar
  96. Diss TC, Wotherspoon AC, Speight P, Pan L, Isaacson PG (1995) B-cell monoclonality, Epstein Barr Virus and t(14;18) in myoepithelial sialadenitis and low-grade B-cell MALT lymphoma of the parotid gland. Am J Surg Pathol 19: 531–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Donkor P, Punnia-Moorthy A, Painter DM (1991) A case of AIDS presenting as intra-oral malignant lymphoma. Aust Dent J 36 (1): 22–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Dorian KJ, Beatty E, Atterbury KD (1990) Detection of herpes simplex virus by the Kodak Sure Cell herpes test. J Clin Microbiol 28: 2117–2119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Drew WL, Miner RC, Ziegler JL et al (1982) Cytomegalovirus and Kaposi’s sarcoma in young homosexual men. Lancet 2: 125–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Drijkoningen M, De Wolf-Peeters C, Degreef H, Desmet V (1988) Epidermal Langerhans cells, dermal dendritic cells, and keratinocytes in viral lesions of skin and mucous membranes, an immunohistochemical study. Arch Dermatol Res 280: 220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Duff RG, Rapp F (1971) Oncogenic transformation of hamster embryo cells after exposure to herpes simplex virus type 2. Nature 233: 48–50Google Scholar
  102. Dupin N, Gradadam M, Calvez V et al (1995) Herpesvirus like DNA sequences in patients with Mediterranean Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet 345: 761–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Duvic M, Reisner EG, Dawson DV, Ciftan E (1983) HLA-B15 association with erythema multiforme. J Am Acad Dermatol 8: 493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Eglin RP, Scully C, Lehner T, Ward-Booth P, McGregor IA (1983) Detection of RNA complementary to herpes simplex virus DNA in human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Lancet 11: 766–768Google Scholar
  105. Eisenberg E, Krutchkoff D, Yamase H (1992) Incidental oral hairy leukoplakia in immunocompetent persons. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 74: 332–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Epstein JB, Scully C (1991) Herpes simplex virus in immunocompromised patients: growing evidence of drug resistance. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 72: 47–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Epstein JB, Scully C (1993) Cytomegalovirus: a virus of increasing relevance to oral medicine and pathology. J Oral Pathol Med 22: 348–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Epstein JB, Priddy RW, Sherlock CH (1988) Hairy leukoplakia-like lesions in immunosuppressed patients following bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 46: 462–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Epstein JB, Sherlock CH, Greenspan JS (1991) Hairy leukoplakia-like lesions following bone marrow transplantation. AIDS 5: 101–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Epstein JB, Wolber RA, Sherlock CH (1992) Cytomegalovirus-induced gingival hyperplasia following cardiac transplantation. Ann Intern Med 116: 1034PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Epstein JB, Sherlock CH, Wolber RA (1993) Hairy leukoplakia after bone marrow transplantation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 75: 690–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Epstein JB, Fatahzadeh M, Matisic J, Anderson G (1995) Exfoliative cytology and electron microscopy in the diagnosis of hairy leukoplakia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 79: 564–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Erice A, Chou S, Biron KK, Stanat SC, Balfour HH, Jordan MC (1989) Progressive disease due to ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus in immunocompromised patients. N Engl J Med 320: 289–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Erlich KS, Mills J, Chatis PS, et al (1989) Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus infections in patients with the accquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 320: 293–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Evans AS (1982) The transmission of EB viral infections. In: Hooks J, Jordan G (eds) Viral infections in oral medicine. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 211Google Scholar
  116. Eversole LR, Laipis PJ (1988) Oral squamous papillomas: detecton of HPV DNA by in situ hybridization. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 65: 545–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Eversole LR, Jacobsen P, Stone CE, Freckleton V (1986) Oral condyloma planus (hairy leukoplakia) among homosexual men: a clinico-pathologic study of 36 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 61: 249–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Eversole LR, Laipis PJ, Merrell P, Choi E (1987) Demonstration of human papillomavirus DNA in oral condyloma acuminatum. J Oral Pathol 16: 266–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Eversole LR, Stone CE, Beckman AM (1988) Detection of EBV and HPV-DNA sequences in oral “hairy” leukoplakia by in situ hybridisation. J Med Virol 26: 271–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Farese RV, Schambelan M, Hollander H, Stingari S, Jacobson MA (1990) Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus associated with foscarnet treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Ann Intern Med 112: 955–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Ferris DG, Fischer PM (1992) Elementary school student’s performance with two ELISA test systems. JAMA 268: 766–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ficarra G, Barone R, Gaglioti D, Milo D, Riccardi R, Romagnoli P, Zorn M (1988a) Oral hairy leukoplakia among HIV-positive intravenous drug abusers: a clinicopathologic and ultra-structural study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 65: 421–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ficarra G, Barone R, Gaglioti D (1988b) Oral hairy leukoplakia among HIV positive intravenous drug abusers: a clinicopathologic and ultrastructural study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 65: 421–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Ficarra G, Miliani A, Adler-Storthz K et al (1991) Recurrent oral condylomata acuminata and hairy luekoplakia: an early sign of myelodisplastic syndrome in an HIV-seronegative patient. J Oral Pathol Med 20: 398–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Field JK, Spandidos DA, Malliri A, Gosney JR, Yiagnisis M, Stell PM (1991) Elevated p53 expression correlates with a history of heavy smoking in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Br J Cancer 64: 573–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Field JK, Spandidos DA, Stell PM (1992) Overexpression of p53 gene in head and neck cancer, linked with heavy smoking and drinking. Lancet 339: 502–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Flescher E, Talal N (1991) Do viruses contribute to the development of Sjogren’s syndrome? Am J Med 90: 283–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Fluckiger R, Laifer G, Itin P, Meyer B, Lang C (1994) Oral hairy leukoplakia in a patient with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterol 106: 506–508Google Scholar
  129. Forbes BA (1989) Acquisition of cytomegalovirus infection: an update. Clin Microbiol Rev 2: 204–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Fox RI (1989) Viral genomes in lymphomas of patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. In: Talal N (ed) Sjogren’s syndrome: a model for understanding autoimmunity. Academic, London, pp 141–147Google Scholar
  131. Fox RI, Pearson G, Vaughan JH (1986) Detection of Epstein-Barr virus-associated antigens and DNA in salivary gland biopsies from patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. J Immunol 137: 3162–3168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Fox RI, Luppi M, Kang HI, Pisa P (1991) Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in Sjogren’s syndrome. Springer Semin Immunopathol 13: 217–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Fox SF, Meiller TF, Lohr JT, Sydiskis RJ (1987) Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody typing system for herpes simplex virus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 64: 165–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Fraga-Fernandez J, Vicandi-Plaza B (1992) Diagnosis of hairy leukokplakia by exfoliative cytologic methods. Am J Clin Pathol 97: 262–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Frazer IH, Leonard JH, Schonrock J, Wright RG, Kearsley JH (1993) HPV DNA in oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers: comparison of results from four DNA detection methods. Pathology 25: 138–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Freeman JL, McIvor NP, Feinmesser R, Cheung RK, Dosch HM (1994) Epstein-Barr virus and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: bringing molecular genetics strategies to head and neck oncology. J Otolaryngol 23: 130–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Frenkel N, Schirmer EC, Wyatt LS, Katsafanas G, Roffman E, Danovich RM, June CH (1990) Isolation of a new herpesvirus from human CD4+ T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 748–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Friedman-Kien AE (1986) Viral origin of hairy leukoplakia. Lancet 11: 694Google Scholar
  139. Friedman-Kien AE, Saltzman BR, Cao YZ et al (1990) Kaposi’s sarcoma in HIV-negative homosexual men. Lancet 335: 168–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Gail MH, Pluda JM, Rabkin CS et al (1991) Projections of the incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Natl Cancer Inst 83: 695–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Gallina G, Cumbo V, Messina P et al (1985) HLA-A, B and C antigens in Sicilian patients with recurrent herpes labialis. IRCS Med Sci 13: 374–373Google Scholar
  142. Garlick JA, Calderon S, Buchner A, Mitrani-Rosenbaum S (1989) Detection of human papillomavirus ( HPV) DNA in focal epithelial hyperplasia. J Oral Pathol Med 18: 172–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Garry RF, Fermin CD, Hart DJ, Alexander SS, Donehower LA, Luo-Zhang H (1990) Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retrovial particle antigenically related to HIV. Science 250: 1127–1129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Gaston JS, Rowe M, Bacon P (1991) Sjogren’s syndrome after infection by Epstein-Barr Virus. J Rheumatol 17: 558–561Google Scholar
  145. Gentry LO, Zeluff B (1988) Infection in the cardiac transplant patient. In: Rubin RH, Young LS (eds) Clinical approach to infection in the compromised host, 2nd edn. Plenum Medical, New York, pp 623–648Google Scholar
  146. Gershon AA, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study Group (1990) Live attenuated varicella vaccine: protection in healthy adults compared with leukaemic children. J Infect Dis 161: 661–666Google Scholar
  147. Gibson JR, Klaber MR, Harvey SG, Tosti A, Jones D, Yeo JM (1986) Prophylaxis against herpes labialis with acyclovir cream–a placebo-controlled study. Dermatologica 172: 104–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Gilligan K, Rajadurai P, Resnick L, Raab-Traub N (1990) Epstein-Barr virus small nuclear RNAs are not expressed in permissively infected cells in AIDS-associated leukoplakia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 8790–8794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Speicher CE, Holliday JE (1985) Stress, loneliness, and changes in herpesvirus latency. J Behav Med 8: 249–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Glaser R, Rice J, Sheridan et al (1987) Stress-related immune suppression: health implications. Brain Behav Immum 1: 7–20Google Scholar
  151. Glick M, Cleveland DB, Salkin LM, Alfaro-Miranda A, Fielding AF (1991) Intraoral cytomegalovirus lesion and HIV-associated periodontitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 72: 716–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Gluckman E, Lotsberg J, Devergie A et al (1983a) Oral acyclovir prophylactic treatment of herpes simplex infection after bone marrow transplantation. J Antimicrob Chemother 12 [Suppl B]: 161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Cluckman E, Lotsberg J, Devergie A et al (1983b) Prophylaxis of herpes infections after bone-marrow transplantation by oral acyclovir. Lancet 2: 706–708Google Scholar
  154. Gonik B, Seibel M, Berkowitz A, Woodin MB, Mills K (1991) Comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of herpes simplex virus antigen. In Clin Microbiol 29: 436–438Google Scholar
  155. Gopal MR, Thomson BJ, Fox J, Tedder RS, Honess RW (1990) Detection by PCR of HHV-6 and EBV DNA in blood and oropharynx of healthy adults and HIV-seropositives. Lancet 335: 1598–1599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Gottlieb MS, Schroff R, Schanker HM et al (1981) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med 305: 1425–1431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Grattan CEH, Small D, Kennedy CTC, Scully C (1986) Oral herpes simplex infection in bullous pemphigoid. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 61: 40–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Green JA, Spruance SL, Wenerstrom G, Pipkorn MW (1985) Post-herpetic erythema multiforme prevented with prophylactic oral acyclovir. Ann Intern Med 102: 632–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Green TL, Eversole LR (1989) Oral lymphomas in HIV-infected patients: associated with Epstein-Barr virus DNA. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 67: 437–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Green TL, Greenspan JS, Greenspan D, DeSouza YG (1989) Oral lesions mimicking hairy leukoplakia: a diagnostic dilemma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 67: 422–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Greenberg MS, Cohen SG, Boosz B, Friedman H (1987a) Oral herpes simplex infections in patients with leukemia. JADA 114: 483–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Greenberg MS, Friedman H, Cohen SG, Ol SH, Laster L, Starr S (1987b) A comparative study of herpes simplex infections in renal transplant and leukemic patients. J Infect Dis 156: 280–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Greenberg MS, Dubin G, Stewart JCB, Cumming CG, MacGregor RR, Freidman HM (1995) Relationship of oral disease to the presence of cytomegalovirus DNA in the saliva of AIDS patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 79: 175–179Google Scholar
  164. Greenspan D, Greenspan JS, Conant M, Petersen V, Silverman S, DeSouza Y (1984) Oral “hairy” leukoplakia in male homosexuals: evidence of association with both papillomavirus and a herpes-group virus. Lancet 11: 831–834Google Scholar
  165. Greenspan D, de Villiers EM, Greenspan JS et al (1988) Unusual HPV types in oral warts in association with HIV infection. J Oral Pathol 17: 482–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Greenspan D, Greenspan JS, DeSouza YG, Levy JA, Ungar AM (1989) Oral hairy leukoplakia in an HIV-negative renal transplant recipient. J Oral Pathol Med 18: 32–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Greenspan D, Greenspan JS, Pindborg JJ, Schiodt M (1990) AIDS and the dental team, 2nd edn. Munksgaard, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  168. Greenspan JS, Green D (1989) Oral hairy leukoplakia: diagnosis and management. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 67: 396–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Greenspan JS, Greenspan D, Lennette ET, Abrams B, Conant M, Petersen V, Freese H (1985) Replication of Epstein-Barr virus within the epithelial cells of “hairy” leukoplakia, an AIDS-associated lesion. N Engl J Med 313: 1564–1571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Greer RO, Eversole LR, Poulson TC, Boone ME, Lindenmuth JE, Crosby L (1987) Identification of human papillomavirus DNA in smokeless tobacco-associated keratoses from juveniles, adults and older adults using immunocytochemical and in situ DNA hybridization techniques. Gerodontics 3: 201–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Greer RO Jr, Eversole LR, Crosby LK (1990) Detection of human papillomavirus-genomic DNA in oral epithelial dysplasias, oral smokeless tobacco-association leukoplakias, and epithelial malignancies. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 48: 1201–1205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Griffiths PD, Grundy JE (1988) The status of CMV as a human pathogen. Epidemiol Infect 100: 1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Grimwood R, Major M, Huff J, Weston W (1983) Complement deposition in the skin of patients with herpes-associated erythema multiforme. J Am Acad Dermatol 9: 199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Groot RH, van Merekesteyn JPR, Bras J (1990) Oral manifestations of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in HIV infected patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 19: 194–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Grose C, Litwin V (1988) Immunology of the varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins. J Infect Dis 157: 877–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Gross G,Wiegand H, Zentgraf H (1988) Epstein-Barr virus detection in oral hairy leukoplakia in AIDS patients, in leukoplakias and on normal tongue epithelia in HIV-negative patients. Z Hantks 63: 44–48Google Scholar
  177. Grossman ME, Stevens AW, Cohen PR (1993) Brief report: herpetic geometric glossitis. N Engl J Med 329: 1859–1860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Guinan ME, Wolinsky SM, Reichman RC (1985) Epidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus infection. Epidemiol Rev 7: 127–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Gusterson BA, Anbazhagan R, Warren W, Midgely C, Lane DP, O’Hare M, Stamps A, Carter R, Jayatilake H (1991) Expression of p53 in premalignant and malignant squamous epithelium. Oncogene 6: 1785–1789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Haddad J, Deny P, Munz-Gother C et al (1992) Lymphocytic sialadenitis of Sjogren’s syndrome associated with chronic hepatitis C virus liver disease. lancet 339: 321–323Google Scholar
  181. Hamzaoui K, Ayed K, Slim A, Hamza M, Touraine J (1990) Natural killer cell activity, interferon gamma and antibodies to herpes viruses in patients with Behcet’s disease. Clin Exp Immunol 79: 28–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Hann IM, Prentice HG, Blacklock HA et al (1983) Acyclovir prophylaxis against herpes virus infections in severely immunocompromised patients: randomized double blind trial. Br Med J 287: 384–388Google Scholar
  183. Harbour DA, Hill TJ, Blyth WA (1983) Recurrent herpes simplex in the mouse: inflammation in the skin and activation of virus in ganglia following peripheral stimulation. J Gen Virol 64: 1491–1498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Harnett GB, Farr TJ, Pietroboni GR, Bucens MR (1990) Frequent shedding of human herpesvirus 6 in saliva. J Med Virol 32: 139–142Google Scholar
  185. Haverkos HW, Friedman-Kien AE, Doetman DP, Morgan WM (1990) The changing incidence of Kaposi’s sarcoma among patients with AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 22: 1250–1253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Henderson S, Rowe M, Gregory C et al (1991) Induction of bd-2 expression by Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 protects infected B cells from programmed cell death. Cell 65: 1107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Henke PR, Guerin-Reverchon I, Milde-Langosch K, Stromme-Koppang H, Loning T (1989) In situ detection of human papillomavirus types 13 and 32 in focal epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. J Oral Pathol Med 18: 419–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Herndier GB, Werner A, Arnstein P et al (1994) Characterisation of a human Kaposi’s sarcoma cell line that induces angiogenic tumors in animals. AIDS 8: 575–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Hersman J, Meyers JD, Thomas ED, Buckner CD, Clift R (1982) The effect of granulocyte transfusions upon the incidence of cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic marrow transplantation. Ann Intern Med 96: 149–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Hill TJ (1985) Herpes simplex virus latency. In: Roizman B (ed) The herpes viruses, vol 3. Plenum, New York, pp 175–240Google Scholar
  191. Hill PA, Lamey PJ (1986) Oral herpes zoster with contralateral skin involvement. Br Dent J 161: 217–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Hirsch JM, Johannson SL, Vahlne A (1984a) Effect of snuff and herpes simplex virus-1 on oral mucosa. Possible association with the development of squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol 13: 52–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Hirsch JM, Svennerholm B, Vahlne A (1984b) Inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication by tobacco extracts. Cancer Res 44: 1991–1997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Ho M (1990) Epidemiology of cytomegalovirus infections. Rev Infect Dis 19: 5701–5710Google Scholar
  195. Hommel DJ, Brown ML, Kinzie JJ (1987) Response to radiotherapy of head and neck tumours in AIDS patients. Am J Surg 154: 443–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Honig JF, Becker MJ, Brinck Y, Korabiowska M (1995) Detection of human papillomavirus DNA sequences in leucocytes: a new approach to identify hematological markers of HPV infection in patients with oral SCC. Bull Group Int Rech Sci Stomatol Odontol 38: 25–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Hopp JR, Collins FJV, Ross A, Myall RWT (1982) A review of Burkitt’s lymphoma: importance of radiographic diagnosis. J Maxillfac Surg 10: 240–245Google Scholar
  198. Hording U, Nielsen HW, Dangaard S, Albeck H (1994) Human papillomavirus types 11 and 16 detected in nasopharyngeal carcinomas by the polymerase chain reaction. Laryngoscope 104: 99–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Horiuchi H, Mishima K, Ichijima K, Sugimura M Ishida T, Kirita T (1995) Epstein-Barr virus in the proliferative diseases of squamous epithelium in the oral cavity. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 79: 57–63Google Scholar
  200. Hsu MM, Chang YL, Ko JY, Chen CL, Kao YF (1994) Epstein-Barr virus harboring in the parotid gland without tumor association. J Formos Med Assoc 93: 104–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Huang YQ, Li JJ, Kaplan MH et al (1995) Human herpesvirus-like nucleic acid in various forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet 345: 759–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Huff JW, Weston WL (1989) Recurrent erythema multiforme. Medicine (Baltimore) 68: 133Google Scholar
  203. Itin P, Rufli I, Rudlinser R, Lathomas G, Hurer H, Podrinec M, Gurdat A (1988) Oral hairy leukoplakia in a HIV-negative renal transplant patient: a marker for immunosuppression. Dermatologica 17: 126–128Google Scholar
  204. Iwasaka T, Yokoyama M, Hayashi Y, Sugimori H (1988) Combined herpes simplex virus type 2 and human papillomavirus type 16 or 18 deoxyribonucleic acid leads to oncogenic transformation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 159: 1251–1255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Jabbar AAR, Al-Samarou Am, Al-Amar NS (1991) HLA antigens associated with susceptibility to herpes simplex virus infection. Dis Markers 9: 281–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Jacobsen MA, Mills J (1988) Serious cytomegalovirus disease in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ). Ann Intern Med 108: 585–594Google Scholar
  207. Jalal H, Sanders CM, Prime SS, Scully C, Maitland NJ (1992) Detection of human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in oral squames from normal young adults. J Oral Pathol Med 28: 465–470Google Scholar
  208. Jalal H, Scully C, Maitland NJ, Porter S, Luker J Detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in oral squames from HIV seropositive persons by polymerase chain reaction. J Oral Path Med (in press)Google Scholar
  209. Jarrett RF, Clark DA, Josephs SF, Onions DE (1990) Detection of human herpesvirus-6 DNA in peripheral blood and saliva. J Med Virol 32: 73–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Johnson FB (1982) Chemical interactions with herpes simplex type 2 virus: enhancement of transformation by selected chemical carcinogens and procarcinogens. Carcinogenesis 3: 1235–1240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Johnson TL, Plieth DA, Crissman JD, Sarkar FH (1991) HPV detection by polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) in verrucous lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Mod Pathol 4: 461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Jones AC, Migliorati CA, Baughman RA (1992) The simultaneous occurrence of oral herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and histoplasmosis in an HIV-infected patient. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 74: 334–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Jones AC, Freedman PD, Phelan JA, Baughman RA, Kerpel SM (1993) Cytomegalovirus infections of the oral cavity. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 73: 76–85Google Scholar
  214. Kameyama T, Sujaku C, Yamamot S, Hwang C, Shillitoe E (1988a) Shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1 into saliva in a Japanese population. J Oral Pathol 17: 478–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Kameyama T, Sujaku C, Yamamoto S et al (1988b) Shedding of herpex simplex virus type 1 into saliva. J Oral Pathol 17: 478–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Kameyama T, Futami M, Nakayoshi N, Sujaku C, Yamamoto S (1989) Shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1 into saliva in aptients with orofacial fracture. J Med Virol 28: 78–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Kampgen E, Burg G, Wank R (1988) Association of herpes simplex virus-induced erythema multiforme with human leukocyte antigen DQw3. Arch Dermatol 124: 13–72Google Scholar
  218. Kanas RJ, Jensen JL, Abrams AM (1987) Cytomegalovirus as a manifestation of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 64: 183–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Kanas RJ, Abrams AM, Jensen JL, Wuerker RB, Handlers JP (1988a) Oral hairy leukoplakia: ultrastructural observations. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 65: 333–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Kanas RJ, Abrams AM, Recher L, Jansen JL, Handlers JP, Wuerker RB (1988b) Oral hairy leukoplakia: a light microscopic and immunohistochemical study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 66: 334–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Kaner RJ, Baird A, Mansukhani A et al (1990) Fibroblast growth factor receptor is a portal of cellular entry for herpes simplex virus type 1. Science 248: 1410–1413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Kanitakis J, Euvrard S, LeFrancois N, Hermier C, Thivolet J (1991) Oral hairy leukoplakia in a HIV-negative renal graft recipient. Br J Dermatol 124: 483–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Karameris A, Gorgoulis V, Iliopoulos A (1992) Detection of the Epstein Barr viral genome by an in situ hybridization method in salivary gland biopsies from patients with secondary Sjogren’s syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol 10: 327–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Karja J, Syrjanen S, Usenius T, Vornanen M, Collan Y (1988) Oral cancer in children under 15 years of age. A clinicopatholgocial and virological study. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 449: 145–149Google Scholar
  225. Karp JE, Broder S (1991) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Cancer Res 51: 4743–4756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Kashima KH, Kutcher M, Kessis T, Levin LS, de Villiers E-M, Shah K (1990) Human papillomavirus in squamous cell carcinoma, leukoplakia, lichen planus, and clinically normal epithelium of the oral cavity. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 99: 55–61Google Scholar
  227. Kaugars GE, Burns JC (1989) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the oral cavity associated with AIDS. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 67: 433–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Kazmierowski JA, Peizner DS, Wuepper KD (1982) Herpes simplex antigen in immune complexes of patients with erythema multiforme. J Am Med Assoc 247: 25–47Google Scholar
  229. Kellowski J, Syrjanen S, Syrjanen K, Yliskoski M (1990) Oral mucosal changes in women with genital HPV infection. J Oral Pathol Med 19: 12–148Google Scholar
  230. Kellowski JK, Syrjanen SM, Chang F, Yliskoski M, Syrjanen KJ (1992a) Southern blot hybridization and PCR in detection of oral human papillomavirus ( HPV) infections in women with genital HPV infections. J Oral Pathol Med 21: 459–464Google Scholar
  231. Kellowski JK, Syrjanen S, Yliskoski M, Syrjanen K (1992b) Dot blot hybridization in detection of human papillomavirus ( HPV) infections in oral cavity in women with genital HPV infections. J Oral Microbiol Immum 7: 19–23Google Scholar
  232. Kessler HH, Benson CH, Urbanski P (1988) Regression of oral hairy leukoplakia during zidovudine therapy. Arch Intern Med 148: 2490–2497Google Scholar
  233. Kido S, Kondon K, Kondon T, Morishima T, Takashashi M, Yamanishi K (1990) Detection of human herpesvirus 6 DNA in throat swabs by polymerase chain reaction, J Med Virol 32: 139–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Kennedy S, Malkoff S et al (1988) Marital discord and immunity in males. Psychom Med 50: 213–229Google Scholar
  235. Kitasato H, Delius H, Zur Hausen H, Sorger K, Rosl F, de Villiers EM (1994) Sequence rearrangements in the upstream regulation region of human papillomavirus type 6: are these involved in malignant transition? J Gen Virol 75: 1157–1162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Kiyabu MT, Shibata D, Arnheim N, Martin WJ, Fitzgibbons (1989) Detection of human papillomavirus in formalin-fixed, invasive squamous carcinomas using the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Surg 13: 221Google Scholar
  237. Kohl S (1985) Herpes simplex virus immunology: problems, progress and promises. J Infect Dis 152: 435–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Krueger GRF, Wassermann K, de Clerk LS et al (1990) Latent herpesvirus-6 in salivary and bronchial glands. Lancet 336: 590–593Google Scholar
  239. Kuhn JE, Dunkler G, Munk K, Braun RW (1987) Analysis of the IgM and IgG antibody response against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) structural and non-structural proteins. J Med Virol 23: 135–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Kumari TV, Thankamani H, Prabha B, Sasidharan VK, Vasudevan DM (1985) Detection of antibodies against HSV in patients with oral cancers. Indian J Cancer 21: 137–140Google Scholar
  241. Lafferty WE, Coombs RW, Benedetti J, Critchlow MS, Corey L (1987) Recurrences after oral and genital herpes simplex virus infection. Influence of site of infection and viral type. N Engl J Med 316: 1444–1449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Lalwani AK, Snyderman NL (1991) Pharyngeal ulceration in AIDS patients secondary to cytomegalovirus infection. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 100: 484–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Lamey P-J, Waterhouse JP, Ferguson MM (1982) Pleomorphic salivary adenoma: virally-induced pleomorphic salivary adenoma in the CFLP mouse. Am J Pathol 109: 129–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Langford A, Kunze R, Timm H, Ruf B, Reichart P (1990) Cytomegalovirus associated oral ulcerations in HIV-infected patients. J Oral Pathol Med 19: 71–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Langford A, Dienemann D, Schuman D et al (1990) Oral manifestations of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 20: 136–141Google Scholar
  246. Larsen ET, Duggan MA, Inoue M (1994) Absence of human papilloma virus DNA in oropharyngeal spindle cell squamous carcinomas. Am J Clin Pathol 101: 514–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Larsson PA, Johansson SL, Vahlne A, Hirsch JM (1989) Snuff tumorigenesis: effects of long-term snuff administration after initiation with 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and herpes simplex virus type-2. J Oral Pathol Med 18: 187–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Larsson PA, Edstron S, Westin T, Nordkrist A, Hirsch HM, Vahlne A (1991) Reactivity against herpes simplex virus in patients with head and neck cancer. Int J Cancer 49: 14–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Laskin OL (1985) Acyclovir and suppression of frequently recurring herpetic whitlow. Ann Intern Med 102: 494–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Laskin OL, Cederberg DM, Mills J, Eson LJ, Mildvan D, Spector SA (1987) Ganciclovir for the treatment and suppression of serious infections caused by cytomegalovirus. J Infect Dis 155: 323–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Lawton GM, Thomas SJ, Schonrock J, Monsour FM, Frazer IH (1992) Prevalence of genital human papillomaviruses in normal oral mucosa: a comparison of methods for sample collection. J Oral Pathol Med 21: 265–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Leading Article (1989) Recurrent erythema multiforme and herpes simplex virus. Lancet 11: 1311Google Scholar
  253. Leading Article (1990) Postherpetic neuralgia. Lancet 336: 537–538Google Scholar
  254. Leess FR, Kessler DJ, Mickel RA (1987) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the head and neck in patients with AIDS. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 113: 1104–1106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Legendre C, Russell AS, Jeannet M (1982) HLA antigens in patients with recrudescent herpes simplex infections. Tissue Antigens 19: 85–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Leight I, Mowbray J, Levene G, Sutherland S (1985) Recurrent and continuous erythema multiforme: a clinical and immunological study. Clin Exp Dermatol 10: 58Google Scholar
  257. Leimola-Virtanen RE, Happonen PR, Syrjanen SM (1995) Cytomegalovirus (CMV) andGoogle Scholar
  258. Helicobacter pylori (HP) found in oral mucosal ulcers. J Oral Pathol Med 24: 14–17Google Scholar
  259. Lemak MA, Davis M, Bean SF (1986) Oral acyclovir for the prevention of herpes-associated erythema multiforme. J Am Acad Dermatol 15: 50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Lenoir GM, Delecluse HJ (1989) Lymphoma and immunocompromised host. In: Revilland JP, Wierzbicki N (eds) Immune disorders and opportunistic infections. Suresness Foundation Franco-Allemande, pp 173–183Google Scholar
  261. Leport C, Harzic M, Pignon JM et al (1987) Benign cytomegalovirus mononucleosis in non-AIDS, HIV-infected patients. Lancet 11: 214Google Scholar
  262. Lerner CW, Tapper ML (1984) Opportunistic infection complicating acquired immune deficiency syndrome: clinical features of 25 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 63: 155–164Google Scholar
  263. Lerner M, Andrews N, Miller J et al (1981) Two small RNAs encoded by Epstein-Barr virus and complexed with protein are precipitated by antibodies from patients with systemic lupus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 805–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Ley C, Bauer HM, Reingold A (1991) Determinants of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. JNCI 83: 991–1003Google Scholar
  265. Leyvraz S, Heule W, Chahinian AP et al (1985) Association of Epstein-Barr virus with thymic carcinoma. N Engl J Med 312: 1296–1299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Liebowitz D (1994) Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the Epstein-Barr virus association. Semin Oncol 21: 376–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Lin-Greenberg A, Villacin A, Moussa G (1990) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis presenting as ulcerodestructive gastrointestinal tract lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Intern Med 150: 2581–2583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Lipson SM, Salo RJ, Leonardi GP (1991) Evaluation of five monoclonal antibody-based kits or reagents for the identification and culture confirmation of herpes simplex virus. J Clin Microbiol 29: 466–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Lo SC, Shih JW, Newton PB III et al (1989) Virus-like infectious agent (VLIA) is a novel pathogenic mycoplasma: mycoplasma incognitus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41: 586–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Loeser JD (1986) Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Pain 25: 1172–1181Google Scholar
  271. Loning T, Ikenberg H, Becker J, Gissmann L, Hoepfer I, zur Hausen H (1985) Analysis of oral papillomas, leukoplakias, and invasive carcinomas for human papillomavirus type related DNA. J Invest Dermatol 84: 417–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Loning T, Henke RP, Reichart P, Becker J (1987a) In situ hybridisation to detect Epstein-Barr virus DNA in oral tissues of HIV-infected patients. Virchows Arch [A] 412: 127–133Google Scholar
  273. Loning T, Meichsner M, Milde-Langosch K et al (1987b) HPV DNA detection in tumours of the head and neck: a comparative light microscopy and DNA hybridization study. Otorhinology 49: 259–269Google Scholar
  274. Lowhagen GB, Janesn E, Nordenfelt E, Lycke E (1990) Epidemiology of genital herpes infections in Sweden. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 70: 330–334Google Scholar
  275. Lozada-Nur F, Shillitoe EJ (1985) Erythema multiforme and herpes simplex virus. J Dent Res 64: 930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Lozada-Nur F, Silverman S Jr, Migliorati C et al (1984) The diagnosis of AIDS and AIDS-related complex in the dental office: findings in 171 homosexual males. CDA J 12: 21–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Lozada-Nur F, Cram D, Gorsky M (1992) Clinical response to levamisole in thirty-nine patients with erythema multiforme. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 74: 294–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Lucht E, Albert J, Linde A (1993) Human immunodeficiency type 1 and cytomegalovirus in saliva. J Med Virol 39: 156–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Lucin P, Pavic I, Polic B, Jonjic S, Koszinowski UH (1992) Gamma interferon-dependent clearance of cytomegalovirus infection in salivary glands. J Virol 66: 1977–1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Lumerman H, Freedman P, Kerpel S, Cale A (1990) Screening for oral hairy leukoplakia by cytologic examination. Diagn Cytopathol 6: 225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Lynn WA, Davidson RN, Wansbrough-Jones MH (1987) Successful use of oral acyclovir to prevent herpes simplex-associated erythema multiforme. J Infect 15: 192–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Mabruk MJEMF, Flint S, Toner M et al (1994) In situ hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction in analysis of biopsies and exfoliative cytology specimens for definitive diagnosis of oral hairy leukoplakia ( OHL ). J Oral Pathol Med 24: 302–308Google Scholar
  283. Mabruk MJEMF, Flint SR, Toner M, Leonard N, Sheils O, Coleman DC, Atkins GJ (1995) Detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in tongue tissues from AIDS autopsies without clinical evidence of oral hairy leukoplakia. J Oral Pathol Med 24: 109–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Macher AM, Richert CM, Straus SE et al (1983) Death in the AIDS patient: role of cytomegalovirus. N Engl J Med 309: 1454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Macleod RI, Long LQ, Soames JV (1990) Oral hairy leukoplakia in an HIV-negative renal transplant patient. Br Dent J 169: 208–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. MacPhail LA, Greenspan D, Schiodt M, Drennan DP, Mills J (1989) Acyclovir-resistant, foscarnetsensitive oral herpes simplex type II lesion in a patient with AIDS. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 67: 427–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. MacPhail LA, Hilton JF, Heinic GS, Greenspan D (1995) Direct immunofluorescence vs culture for detecting HSV in oral ulcers: a comparison. JADA 126: 74–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Madden C, Beckmann AM, Thomas DB, McKnight B, Sherman KJ, Ahley RL, Corey L, Daling JR (1992) Human papillomaviruses, herpes simplex viruses and the risk of oral cancer in men. Am J Epidemiol 135: 1093Google Scholar
  289. Madinier I, Doglio A, Cagnon L, Lefebvre JC, Monteil RA (1992) Epstein-Barr virus DNA detection in gingival tissues of patients undergoing surgical extractions. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 30: 237–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Mai M, Sutker NW, Husberg B, Klintmaim G, Gonwa T (1989) DHPG (ganciclovir) improves survival in CMV pneumonia. Transplant Proc 21: 2263–2265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Maitland NJ, Scully C (1994) Frequency of EBV-DNA detection in Sjogren’s syndrome. Am J Med 96: 97–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Maitland NJ, Cox MF, Prime SS, Scully C, Meanwell CA (1987) Detection of human DNA virus-like sequences in human oral tissues. Br J Cancer 56: 245–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Maitland NJ, Bromidge T, Cox MF, Prime SS, Meanwell CA, Scully C (1989) Detection of human papillomavirus genes in human oral tissue biopsies and cultures by polymerase chain reaction. Br J Cancer 59: 698–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Maitland NJ, Lynas C, Bromidge T, Crane I, Flint SR, Cox MF, Prime SS, Scully C (1991) Presence and expression of latent viruses in oral tissues. In: Johnson NW (ed) Oral cancer: detection of patients and lesions at risk. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 317–339Google Scholar
  295. Maitland N, Flint S, Scully C, Crean S (1995) Detection of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in labial salivary glands in Sjogren’s syndrome and non-specific sialadenitis. J Oral Pathol Med 24: 293–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Malmstrom M et al (1990) Herpes simplex antigens and inflammatory cells in oral lesions in recurrent erythema multiforme. Acta Derm Venereol 70: 405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Mandai BK (1987) Herpes zoster and the immunocompromised. J Infect 14: 1–15Google Scholar
  298. Mangano MF, Hodinka RL, Spivak JG (1992) Detection of human cytomegalovirus by polymerase chain reaction. In: Becker Y, Darai G (eds) Diagnosis of human viruses by polymerase chain reaction technology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 147–156Google Scholar
  299. Manzella JP, McConville JH, Valenti W, Menegus MA, Swierkosz EM, Arens M (1984) An outbreak of herpes simplex virus 1 gingivostomatitis in a dental hygiene practice. JAMA 252: 2019–2022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Mao EJ, Smith CJ (1993) Detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA by the polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) in oral smears from healthy individuals and patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med 22: 12–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Marder MZ, Barr CE, Mandel ID (1985) Cytomegalovirus presence and salivary composition in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 60: 372–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Mariette X, Gozlan J, Clerc D, Sisson M, Morinet F (1991) Detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in salivary gland biopsy specimens from patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Am J Med 90: 286–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Marquart KH, Oehlschlaegel G (1985) Mycoplasma-like structures in a Kaposi’s sarcoma not associated with AIDS. Eur J Clin Microbiol 4: 73–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Marquart KH, Engst R, Oehlschlaegel G (1991) An 8 year history of Kaposi’s sarcoma in an HIV-negative bisexual man. AIDS 5: 346–348Google Scholar
  305. Martin P, Vass WC, Schiller JT, Lowy DR, Vehu TJ (1989) The bovine papillomavirus E5 transforming protein can stimulate the transforming activity of EGF and CSF receptors. Cell 59: 21–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Mathew A, Cheng HM, Sam CK, Joab I, Prasad U, Cochet C (1994) A high incidence of serum IgG antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus replication activator protein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Immunol Immunother 38: 68–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Matthews JB, Scully C, Jovanovic A, Van der Waal I, Yeudall WA, Prime SS (1993) Relationship of tobacco-alcohol use to p53 expression in patients with lingual squamous carcinomas. Oral Oncol Eur J Cancer 29B: 285–290Google Scholar
  308. Matz B, Schlehofer JR, zur Hausen H (1984) Identification of a gene function of herpes simplex virus type 1 essential for amplification of simian virus 40 DNA sequences in transformed hamster cells. Virology 134: 328–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Matz B, Schlehofer JR, zur Hausen H, Huber B, Fanning E (1985) HSV- and chemical carcinogen-induced amplification of SV40 DNA sequences in tranformed cells in cell-line-dependent. Int J Cancer 35: 521–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. McKinnon WW, Weisse C, Reynolds C et al (1989) Chronic stress, leucocyte subpopulations and humoral response to latent viruses. Health Psych 8: 389–402Google Scholar
  311. McMillan JA, Weiner LB, Higgins AM, Lamparella VJ (1993) Pharyngitis associated with herpes simplex virus in college students. Pediatr Infect Dis J 12: 280–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Merigan T (1981) Immunosuppression and herpesviruses. In: Nahmias AJ, Dowdle WR, Schinazi RF (eds) The human herpesviruses. Elsevier, New York, pp 308–316Google Scholar
  313. Meyers JD (1989) Chemoprophylaxis of viral infection in immunocompromised patients. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 25: 1369–1374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Meyers JD, Thomas ED (1988) Infection complicating bone marrow transplantation. In: Rubin RH, Young LS (eds) Clinical approach to infection in the compromised host, 2nd edn. Plenum Medical, New York, pp 525–556Google Scholar
  315. Meyers JD, Reed EC, Shepp DH et al (1988) Acyclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease after allogeneic marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 318: 70–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Migliorati C, Jones A, Baughman P (1993) Use of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral hairy leukoplakia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 76: 704–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Milde K, Loning T (1986) Detection of papillomavirus DNA in oral papillomas and carcinomas: application of in situ hybridization with biotinylated HPV 16 probes. J Oral Pathol 15: 292–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Millar EP, Traulis MJ (1994) Herpes zoster of the trigeminal nerve: the dentists role in diagnosis and management. J Can Dent Assoc 60: 450–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Miller CS, Redding SW (1992) Diagnosis and management of orofacial herpes simplex virus infections. Dent Clin North Am 36: 879–895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Miller CS, Zeuss MS, White DK (1994) Detection of HPV DNA in oral carcinoma using polymerase chain reaction together with in situ hybridization. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 77: 480–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Miller WE, Edwards RH, Walling DM, Raab-Traub N (1994) Sequence variation in the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. J Gen Virol 75: 2729–2740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Mindel A (1991) Is it meaningful to treat patients with recurrent herpetic infections. Scand J Infect [Suppl] 78: 27–32Google Scholar
  323. Mitchell M, Rubin DMD, Carmen A, Gatta DMD, Gerard M, Cozzi DDS (1989) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the buccal gingiva as the initial manifestation of AIDS. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 47: 1311–1313Google Scholar
  324. Mitrani-Rosenbaum S, Tsvieli R, Tur-Kaspa R (1989) Oestrogen stimulates differential transcription of human papillomavirus type 16 in SiHa cervical carcinoma cells. J Gen Virol 70: 2227–2232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Mittal K, Neri A, Feiner H, Schinella R, Alfonso F (1990) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cancer 63: 1345–1349Google Scholar
  326. Miura S, Smith CC, Burnett JW, Aurelian L (1992) Detection of viral DNA within skin of healed recurrent herpes simplex infection and erythema multiforme lesions. J Invest Dermatol 98: 68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Miyasaka N, Saito I, Haruta J (1994) Possible involvement of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of Sjogren’s syndrome. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 72: 166–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Molin L (1987) Oral acyclovir prevents herpes simplex virus-associated erythema multiforme. Br J Dermatol 116: 109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Montgomery MT, Redding SW, Le Maistre CF (1986) The incidence of oral herpes simplex virus infection in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 61: 238–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Montilla P, Dronda F, Moreno S, Expeleta C, Bellas C, Buzon L (1987) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 106: 166–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Moore PS, Chang Y (1995) Detection of herpesvirus like DNA sequences in Kaposi’s sarcoma lesions from persons with and without HIV infection. N Engl J Med 332: 1181–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Moore RD, Kessler H, Richman DD, Flexner C, Chaisson RE (1991) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in patients with advanced HIV infection treated with zidovudine. JAMA 267: 2208–2211Google Scholar
  333. Mosadomi A (1984) Burkitt’s lymphoma of the mouth and jaws. In: Shklar G (ed) Oral cancer: the diagnosis, therapy, management and rehabilitation of the oral cancer patient. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 283–292Google Scholar
  334. Munger K, Werness Ba, Dyson N, Phelps WC, Harlow E, Howley PM (1989) Complex formation of human papillomavirus E7 proteins with the retinoblastoma tumor supressor gene product. EMBO J 8: 4099–4105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Muretto P, Ferenczy A (1992) Association of human papillomavirus type 16 with intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva and oral cavity. Cervix 10: 55–56Google Scholar
  336. Myerson D, Hackman RC, Nelson JA, WardDC, McDougall JK (1984) Widespread evidence of histologically occult cytomegalovirus. Hum Pathol 15: 430–439Google Scholar
  337. Myskowski PL, Straus DJ, Safai B (1990) Lymphoma and other HIV-associated malignancies. J Am Acad Dermatol 22: 1253–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Nagao Y, Sata M, Tanikawa K, Itoh K, Kameyama T (1995) High prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody and RNA in patients with oral cancer. J Oral Pathol Med 24: 354–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Naghashfar Z, Sawda E, Kutcher MA et al (1985) Identification of genital tract papillomaviruses JHPV-6 and HPV-16 in warts of the oral cavity. J Med Virol 17: 313–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Nahass GT, Goldstein BA, Zhu WY, Serfling U, Penneys NS, Leonardi CL (1992) Comparison of Tzanck smear, viral culture and DNA diagnostic methods in detection of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster infection. JAMA 268: 2541–2544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Naher H, Gissmann L, von Knebel Doebertiz C et al (1991) Detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in tongue epithelium of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Invest Dermatol 97: 421–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Nassrin N, Taiba K, Hanman N, Hannan M, al-Sedairy S (1994) A molecular study of EBV DNA and p53 mutations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma of Saudi Arab patients. Cancer Lett 29: 189–198Google Scholar
  343. Newman C, Polk BF (1987) Resolution of hairy leukoplakia during therapy with 9-(13,dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl) guanine ( DHPG ). Ann Intern Med 107: 348–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Nideobitek G, Young LS, Lau R et al (1991) Epstein-Barr virus infection in oral hairy leukoplakia: virus replication in the absence of detectable latent phase. J Gen Virol 72: 3035–3046Google Scholar
  345. Noble-Topham SE, Fliss DM, Hartwick WJ, McLachlin CM, Freeman JL, Moyek AM, Andrulis IL (1993) Detection and typing of human papillomavirus in verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity using the polymerase chain reaction. Arch Otol Head and Neck Surg 119: 1299–1304Google Scholar
  346. Norris SA, Kessler HA, Fife KH (1987) Severe, progressive herpetic whitlow caused by an acyclovir-resistant virus in a patient with AIDS. J Infect Dis 157: 209–210Google Scholar
  347. Ogawa H, Kazuyama Y, Hashiguchi K (1990) Detection of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus in aphthous stomatitis. Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkaikaiho 93: 920Google Scholar
  348. Ogden GR, Kiddie RA, Lunny DP, Lane DP (1992) Assessment of p53 protein expression in normal, benign and malignant oral mucosa. J Pathol 166: 389–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Oh IS, Paik DI, Christensen R, Akoto-Amanfu E, Kim K, Park NH (1989) Herpes simplex virus enhances the 7,12-dimethylbenz-(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis and amplification and over expression of c-erb-B-1 protooncogene in hamster buccal pouch epithelium. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 68: 428–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. O’Hare P, Hayward GS (1985) Three transacting regulatory proteins of herpes simplex virus modulate immediate–early gene expression in a pathway involving positive and negative feedback regulation. J Virol 56: 723–733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Okabe M, Chiba S, Tamina T, Chiba Y, Nakao T (1983) Longitudinal studies of cytomegalovirusspecific cell-mediated immunity in congenitally infected infants. Infect Immun 41: 128–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Orton PW, Huff JC, Tonnesen MG, Weston WL (1984) Detection of a herpes simplex viral antigen in skin lesions of erythema multiforme. Ann Intern Med 101: 48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Ostwald C, Muller P, Basten M, Rutsatz K, Sonnenburg M, Milde-Langosch K, Loning T (1994) Human papillomavirus DNA in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal mucosa. J Oral Pathol Med 23: 220–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Overall JC (1984) Dermatologic viral disease. In: Gallasso GJ, Merigan TC, Buchanan RA (eds) Antiviral agents and viral disease of man, 2nd edn. Raven, New York, pp 247–312Google Scholar
  355. Padayachee A (1994) Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 2 and 57 in oral verrucae demonstrated by in situ hybridization. J Oral Pathol Med 23: 413–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Palefsky JM, Silverman S, Abdel-Salaam M, Daniels TE, Greenspan IS (1995) Association between proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and infection with human papillomavirus type 16. J Oral Pathol Med 24: 193–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Pao CC, Tsai PL, Chang YL, Hsieh TT (1992) Non-sexual papillomavirus transmission routes. Lancet 339: 1479–1480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Papadopoulos GK, Moutsopoulos HM (1992) Slow viruses and the immune system in the pathogenesis of local tissue damage in Sjogren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 51: 136–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Park NH, Herbosa EG, Sapp JP, Li KK (1986) Herpes simplex virus ( HSV) infection with simulated snuff-dipping induces oral cancer in hamsters. J Dent Res 65: 276Google Scholar
  360. Park K, Cherrick H, Min G-M, Park NH (1990) Active HSV-1 immunization prevents the co-carcinogenic activity of HSV-1 in the oral cavity of hamsters. J Oral Pathol Med 70: 186–190Google Scholar
  361. Park NH, Dokko H, Li SL, Cherrick HM (1991) Synergism of herpes simplex virus and tobacco- specific N’-nitrosamines in cell transformation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 49: 276–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Park NH, Li SL, Xie JF, Cherrick HM (1992) In vitro and animal studies of the role of viruses in oral carcinogenesis. Oral Oncol Eur J Cancer 28B: 145–152Google Scholar
  363. Pass RF, Stagno S, Britt WI, Alford CA (1983) Specific cell-mediated immunity and the natural history of congenital infection with cytomegalovirus. J Infect Dis 148: 953–961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Pater A, Bayatpour M, Pater MM (1990) Oncogenic transformation by human papillomavirus type 16 deoxyribonucleic acid in the presence of progesterone or progestin from oral contraceptives. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162: 1099–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Patton DF, Shirley P, Raab-Traub N et al (1990) Defective viral DNA in Epstein-Barr virus associated oral hairy leukoplakia. J Virol 64: 397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Patton L, McMillan CW, Webster WP (1990) American Burkitt’s lymphoma: a 10 year review and case study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 69: 307–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Peckham CS (1991) Cytomegalovirus infection: congenital and neonatal disease. Scand J Infect [Suppl] 78: 82–87Google Scholar
  368. Pedersen A, Hornsleth A (1993) Recurrent aphthous ulceration: a possible clinical manifestation of reactivation of varicella zoster or cytomegalovirus infection. J Oral Pathol Med 22: 64–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Pedersen A, Madsen HO, Vestergaard BP, Ryder LP (1993) Varicella-zoster virus DNA in recurrent aphthous ulcers. Scand J Dent Res 101: 311–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Peitroboni GR, Harnett GB, Bucens MR, Honess RW (1988) Isolation of human herpesvirus 6 from saliva. Lancet 1: 12–35Google Scholar
  371. Perl TM, Haugen TH, Pfaller MA, Hollis R, Laeman AD, Whitley RJ, Nicholson D, Hunter GA, Wenzel RP (1992) Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in an intensive care unit. Ann Intern Med 117: 584–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Pfugfelder SC, Roussel TJ, Culbertson WW (1987) Primary Sjogren’s syndrome after infectious mononucleosis. JAMA 257: 1049–1050Google Scholar
  373. Phelan JA, Klein RN (1988) Resolution of oral hairy leukoplakia during treatment with azidothymidine. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 65: 717–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Pialoux G, Ravisse P, Trotot P, Dupont B (1991) Cytomegalovirus infection of the submandibular gland in a patient with AIDS. Rev Infect Dis 13: 338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. Polk BF, Fox R, Brookmeyer R et al (1987) Predictors of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developing in a cohort of seropositive homosexual men. N Engl J Med 316: 61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Preblud SR (1986) Varicella: complications and costs. Pediatrics 78: 728–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. Preblud SR, Orenstein WA, Bart KJ (1984) Varicella: clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and health impact in children. Pediatr Infect Dis 3: 505–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Preiksaitis JK, Diaz-Mitoma F, Mirzayans F, Roberts S, Tyrrell DLJ (1992) Quantitative oropharyngeal Epstein-Barr virus shedding in renal and cardiac transplant recipients: relationship to immunosuppressive therapy, serologic responses and the risk of post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. J Infect Dis 166: 986–994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Purtilo DT (1980) Immunopathology of infectious mononucleosis and other complications of Epstein-Barr virus infections. Sommers SC, Rosen PP (eds) Pathology annual, part 1, vol 15. Appleton-Century Crofts, New York, pp 253–299Google Scholar
  380. Purtilo DT, Sakamoto K (1981) Epstein-Barr virus and human disease: immune responses determine the clinical and pathological expression. Hum Pathol 12: 677–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Purtilo DT, Sakamoto K, Barnabei V et al (1982) Epstein-Barr virus-induced diseases in boys with the x-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome ( XLP ). Am J Med 73: 49–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. Raab-Traub N, Rajadurai P, Flynn K, Lanier A (1991) Epstein-Barr virus infection in carcinoma of the salivary gland. J Virol 65: 7032–7036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Rabeneck L, Popovic M, Gartner S (1990) Acute HIV infection presenting with painful swallowing and oesophageal ulcers. JAMA 263: 2318–2322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Raborn G, McCaw WT, Grace M, Percy J (1988) Treatment of herpes labialis with acyclovir: review of three clinical trials. Am J Med 85 [Suppl 2A]: 39–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Raborn GW, McGow WT, Grace M, Tyrell LD, Samuels SM (1987) Oral acyclovir and herpes labialis: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. JADA 115: 38–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Rady PL, Yen A, Rollefson JL et al (1995) Herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in non-Kaposi’s sarcoma sin lesions of transplant patients. Lancet 345: 1339–1340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. Rager-Zisman B, Quan PC, Rosner M et al (1987) Role of NK cells in protection of mice against herpes simplex virus-1 infection. J Immunol 138: 884–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Rapp F (1981) Transformation by herpes simplex viruses. In: Essex M, Todaro G, zur Hausen H (eds) Viruses in naturally occurring cancers. Cold Spring Harbor Conf Cell Prolif 7: 63–80Google Scholar
  389. Redding SW (1990) Role of herpes simplex virus reactivation in chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. NCI Mongr 9: 103–105Google Scholar
  390. Reed EC, Wolford JL, Kopecky KJ et al (1990) Ganciclovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus gastroenteritis in bone marrow transplant patients. A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 112: 505–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Reichart PA, Langford A, Gelderblom HR, Phle HD, Becker J, Wolf H (1989) Oral hairy leukoplakia: observations in 95 cases and review of the literature. J Oral Pathol Med 18: 410–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. Resnick L, Herbst JS, Ablashi DV, Atherton S, Frank B, Rosen L, Horowitz N (1988) Regression of oral hairy leukoplakia after orally administered acyclovir therapy. JAMA 259: 384–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Ringden O, Lonnqvist B, Paulin T et al (1986) Pharmacokinetics, safety, and preliminary clinical experiences using foscarnet in the treatment of cytomegalovirus infections in bone marrow and renal transplant recipients. J Antimicrob Chemother 17: 373–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Roizman B, Sears AE (1987) An inquiry into the mechanaism of herpes simplex virus latency. Annu Rev Microbiol 41: 543–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. Rook AH (1988) Interactions of cytomegalovirus with the human immune system. Infect Dis 10: 460–467Google Scholar
  396. Rooney CM, Rowe M, Wallace LE, Rickinson AB (1985) Epstein-Barr virus positive Burkitt’s lymphoma cells not recognised by virus-specific T-cell surveillance. Nature 317: 629–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. Rouse BT (1985) Immunopathology of herpesvirus infections. In: Roizman B, Lopez C (eds) The herpesviruses: immunobiology and prophylaxis of human herpesvirus infections, vol 4. Plenum, New York, pp 103–119Google Scholar
  398. Rowe M, Rowe DT, Gregory DM, Young LS, Farrell PJ, Rupani H, Rickinson AB (1987) Differences in B cell growth phenotype reflect novel patterns of Epstein-Barr virus latent gene expresssion in Burkitts lymphoma cells. EMBO J 6: 2743–2751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Rowe M, Young LS, Cadwallader K et al (1989) Distinction between Epstein-Barr virus type A (EBNA 2A) and type B (EBNA 2B) isolates extends to the EBNA 3 family of nuclear proteins. J Virol 63: 1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Rowe NH, Heine CS, Kowalski CJ (1982) Herpetic whitlow: an occupational disease of practising dentists. JADA 105: 471–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. Rubin MM, Gatta CA, Cozzi GM (1989) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the buccal gingiva as the initial manifestation of AIDS. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 47: 1311–1313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. Rubin RH (1988) Infection in the renal and liver transplant patient. In: Rubin RH, Young LS (eds) Clinical approach to infection in the compromised host, 2nd edn. Plenum Medical, New York, pp 557–621Google Scholar
  403. Rubin RH, Tolkoff-Rubin NE (1984) The problem of cytomegalovirus infection in transplantation. In: Morris PJ, Tilney NL (eds) Progress in transplantation. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 89–114Google Scholar
  404. Rush JD, Ng VL, Hopewell PC, Hadley WK, Mills J (1989) Comparative recovery of cytomegalovirus from saliva, mucolysed induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients at risk for or with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Microbiol 27: 2864–2865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. Ryder JW, Croen K, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK et al (1986) Progressive encephalitis three months after resolution of cutaneous zoster in a patient with AIDS. Ann Neurol 19: 182–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. Sacks SL (1984) Frequency and duration of patient observed recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection: characterisation of the nonlesional prodrome. J Infect Dis 150: 873–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. Saemundsen AK, Purtilo DT, Sakamoto K et al (1981) Documentation of EBV infection in immunodeficient patients with lymphoproliferative diseases by EBV complimentary RNA/ DNA and viral DNA/DNA hybridisation. Cancer Res 41: 4237–4242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Saito I, Servenius B, Compton T, Fox RI (1989) Detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction in blood and tissue biopsies from patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. J Exp Med 169: 2191–2198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. Sakai E, Tsuchida N (1992) Most human squamous cell carcinomas in the oral cavity contain mutated p53 tumor-suppressor genes. Oncogene 7: 927–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Sakaoka H, Sait H, Sekine K et al (1987) Genomic comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates from Japan, Sweden and Kenya. J Gen Virol 68: 749–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. Salahuddin SZ, Abalashi DV, Markham PD, Josephs SF, Sturzeneger S, Kaplan M, Halligan G, Biberfeld P, Wong-Staal F, Kramarsky B, Gallow RC (1986) Isolation of a new virus, HBLV, in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Science 234: 596–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. Sample J, Young L, Martin B et al (1990) Epstein-Barr virus types 1 and 2 differ in their EBNA-3A, EBNA-3B and EBNA-3C genes. J Virol 64: 4084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Sandvej K, Krenacs L, Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Rindum JL, Pindborg JJ, Pallesen G (1992) Epstein-Barr virus latent and replicative gene expression in oral hairy leukoplakia. Histopathology 20: 387–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. Sarai R, Burns WH, Laskin OL, Santos GW, Lietman PS (1981) Acyclovir prophylaxis of herpes simplex virus infections: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in bone-marrow transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 305: 63–67Google Scholar
  415. Schalling M, Ekman M, Kaaya EE, Linde A, Biberfeld P (1995) A role for a new herpes virus ( KSHV) in different forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Nature Med 1: 707–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. Schantz SP, Shillitoe EJ, Brown B, Campbell B (1986) Natural killer cell activity and head and neck cancer: a clinical assessment. J Natl Cancer Inst 77: 869–875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. Scheffner M, Werness BA, Huibregtse JM, Levine AJ, Howley PM (1990) The E6 oncoprotein encoded by human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 promotes the degradation of p53. Cell 63: 1129–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. Schiffman MH (1994) Epidermiology of cervical human papillomavirus infections. In: Compans RW, Cooper M, Koprowski H et al (eds) Current topics in microbiology and immunology, vol 86. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 56–81Google Scholar
  419. Schinazi FR, delBene V, Scott RT, Dudley-Thorpe JB (1986) Characterization of acyclovirresistant and -sensitive herpes simplex viruses isolated from patients with an acquired immune deficiency. J Antimicrob Chemother 18 [Suppl B]: 127–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. Schiodt M, Greenspan D, Daniels TE et al (1989) Parotid gland enlargement associated with labial sialadenitis in HIV infected patients. J Autoimmun 2: 415–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. Schiodt M, Norgard T, Greenspan JS (1995) Oral hairy leukoplakia in an HIV-negative woman with Behcet’s syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 79: 53–56Google Scholar
  422. Schlefhofer JR, Gissmann L, Matz B, zur Hausen H (1983) Herpes simplex virus-induced amplification of SV40 sequences in transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells. Int J Cancer 32: 99–103Google Scholar
  423. Schmidt-Westhausen A, Gelderblom HR, Reichart PA (1990) Oral hairy leukoplakia in an HIV seronegative heart transplant patient. J Oral Pathol Med 19: 192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. Schmidt-Westhausen A, Gelderblom HR, Hetzer R, Reichart PA (1991) Demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus in scrape material of lateral border of tongue in heart transplant patients by negative staining electron microscopy. J Oral Pathol Med 20: 215–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. Schmidt-Westhausen A, Gelderblom HR, Neuhaus P, Reichart PA (1993) Epstein-Barr virus in lingual epithelium of liver transplant patients. J Oral Pathol Med 22: 274–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. Schubert MM, Epstein JB, Lloyd ME, Cooney E (1993) Oral infections due to cytomegalovirus in immunocompromised patients. J Oral Pathol Med 22: 268–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. Sciubba J, Brandsma J, Schwartz M, Barrezueta N (1989) Hairy leukoplakia: an AIDS-associated opportunistic infection. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 67: 404–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. Sciubba JJ, Schwartz MH (1987) Hairy leukoplakia and Epstein-Barr virus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 65: 563–584Google Scholar
  429. Sculley TB, Apolloni A, Hurren L, Moss DJ, Cooper DA (1990) Coinfection with A- and B-type Epstein-Barr virus in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. J Infect Dis 162: 643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. Scully C (1983) Viruses and cancer: herpes viruses and tumors in the head and neck. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 56: 285–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. Scully C (1985) Ulcerative stomatitis, gingivitis and rash: a diagnostic dilemma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 59: 261–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. Scully C (1989a) Orofacial herpes simplex virus infections. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 68: 701–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. Scully C (1989b) Sjogren’s syndrome: no demonstrable association by serology of secondary Sjogren’s syndrome with cytomegalovirus. J Oral Pathol Med 19: 43–44Google Scholar
  434. Scully C (1989c) Orofacial herpes simplex virus infections: current concepts on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment and disorders in which the virus may be implicated. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 68: 701–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. Scully C (1992) Viruses and oral squamous carcinoma. Oral Oncol Eur J Cancer 28B: 57–60Google Scholar
  436. Scully C (1993) Are viruses associated with aphthae and oral vesiculoerosive disorders? Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 31: 173–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Scully C (1995) Infectious disease. In: Millard HD, Mason DK (eds) 1993 world workshop on oral medicine. University of Michigan, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  438. Scully C, Bagg J (1992) Viral infections in dentistry. Curr Opin Dent 9: 8–11Google Scholar
  439. Scully C, Cawson RA, Griffiths M (eds) (1990) Occupational hazards to dental staff. Br Dent J Scully C, Samaranayake LP (1992) Clinical virology in dentistry and oral medicine. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  440. Scully C, Eglin RP, Ward-Booth P, McGregor IA, Boyle P (1982) Human oral squamous cell carcinoma: evidence for RNA complementary to herpes simplex DNA. IRCS Med Sci 10: 531Google Scholar
  441. Scully C, Prime SS, Maitland NJ (1985) Papillomaviruses: their possible role in oral disease. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 60: 166–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. Scully C, Maitland NJ, Cox MF, Prime SS (1987) Human papillomavirus DNA and oral mucosa. Lancet 1: 336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. Scully C, Cox MF, Prime SS, Maitland NJ (1988) Papillomaviruses: the current status in relation to oral disease. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 65: 526–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. Scully C, Epstein JB, Porter SR (1989) Oral hairy leukoplakia (leading article). Lancet 11: 1194Google Scholar
  445. Scully C, Epstein JB, Porter SR, Cox MF (1991a) Viruses and chronic diseases of the oral mucosa. Oral Surg Oral Pathol Oral Med 72: 537–544Google Scholar
  446. Scully C, Prime SS, Cox M, Maitland NJ (1991b) Infectious agents in the aetiology of oral cancer. In: Johnson NW (ed) “Oral cancer: detecction of patients and lesions at risk”. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 96–113Google Scholar
  447. Seal LA, Toyama PS, Fleet KM et al (1991) Comparison of standard culture methods, a shell vial assay, and a DNA probe for the detection of herpes simplex virus. J Clin Microbiol 29: 650–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. Sedlacek TV, Lindheim S, Eder C (1989) Mechanisms for human papillomavirus transmission at birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 161: 55–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. Selby PJ, Powles RL, Easton D et al (1989) The prophylactic role of intravenous and long-term oral acyclovir after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Br J Cancer 59: 434–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. Shattles WG, Brooker SM, Venables PJW, Clark DA, Maini RN (1992) Expression of antigen reactive with a monoclonal antibody to HTLV-1 P19 in salivary glands in Sjogren’s syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol 89: 46–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. Shepp DH, Newton BA, Dandliker PS (1985) Oral acyclovir therapy for mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infections in immunocompromised marrow transplant recipients. Ann Intern Med 102: 783–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. Shillitoe EJ (1991) Relationship of viral infection to malignancies. Curr Opin Dent 1: 398–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. Shillitoe EJ, Alspaugh MA (1985) Antibody to cytomegalovirus in various connective tissue disorders. J Rheumatol 12: 642–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. Shillitoe EJ, Greenspan D, Greenspan JS, Hansen LS, Silverman S (1982) Neutralising antibody to herpes simplex virus type 1 in patients with oral cancer. Cancer 49: 2315–2320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. Shillitoe EJ, Greenspan D, Greenspan JS, Silverman S (1983) Immunoglobulin class of antibody to herpes simplex virus in patients with oral cancer. Cancer 51: 65–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Shin KH, Min BM, Cherrick HM, Park NH (1994) Combined effects of human papillomaviurs-18 and N-methyl-N-nitrosoguanidine on the transformation of normal human oral keratinocytes. Mol Carcinog 9: 76–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. Shindoh M, Sawada Y, Kogho T, Amemiya A, Fujinaga K (1992) Detection of human papillomavirus DNA sequence in tongue squamous cell carcinoma utilizing the polymerase chain reaction method. Int J Cancer 50: 167–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Shroyer KR, Greer RO (1991) Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in premalignant and malignant oral lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 71: 708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. Shroyer KR, Greer RO, Fankhouser CA, McGuirt WF, Marshall R (1993) Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in oral verrucous carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Mod Pathol 6: 669–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. Shuster EA, Beneke JS (1985) Monoclonal antibody for rapid laboratory detection of cytomegalovirus infections: characterisation and diagnostic application. Mayo Clin Proc 60: 577–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. Sixbey JW, Nedrud JG, Raab-Traub N, Hanes RA, Pagano JS (1984) Epstein-Barr virus replication in oropharyngeal epithelial cells. N Engl J Med 310: 1225–1230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. Sixbey JW, Shirley P, Chesney PJ, Buntin DM, Resnick L (1989) Detection of a second widespread strain of Epstein-Barr virus. Lancet 11: 761Google Scholar
  463. Smith S, Ross JR, Scully C (1984) An unusual oral complication of herpes zoster infection. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 57: 388–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. Snijders P, Schulten E, Mullink H et al (1990) Detection of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences in oral mucosa HIV infected patients by the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Pathol 137: 659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. Snijders PJF, Meijer DJLM, Van den Brule AJC, Schrijnemakers HFJ, Snow GB, Walboomers JMM (1992) Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 33 E6/E7 region transcripts in tonsillar carcinomas can originate from integrated and episomal HPV DNA. J Gen Virol 73: 2059–2066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. Soderholm AL, Lindquiet C, Heikinheimo K, Rosell K, Happonen RP (1990) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas presenting through oral symptoms. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 19: 131–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  467. Somers KD, Merrick MA, Kopez ME, Incognito LS, Schechter GL, Casey G (1992) Frequent p53 mutations in head and neck cancer. Cancer Res 52: 5997–6000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. Spector SA, Hirata KK, Neuman TR (1984) Identification of multiple cytomegalovirus strains in homosexual men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Infect Dis 150: 953–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. Spruance SL (1984) Pathogenesis of herpes simplex labialis: excretion of virus in the oral cavity. J Clin Micro 19: 675–679Google Scholar
  470. Spruance SL (1985) Pathogenesis of herpes simplex labialis: experimental induction of lesions with U-V light. J Clin Microbiol 22: 366–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  471. St Onge G, Bezahler GH (1982) Giant esophageal ulcer associated with cytomegalovirus. Gastroenterology 83: 127–130Google Scholar
  472. Stagno S, Whitley RJ (1985) Herpes virus infections of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 313: 1270–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  473. Stagno S, Reynolds DW, Pass RF, Alford CA (1980) Breast milk and the risk of CMV infection. N Engl J Med 302: 1073–1076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. Stanberry LR (1986) Herpesvirus latency and recurrence. Prog Med Virol 33: 61–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. Stow PJ, Glynn CJ, Minor B (1989) EMLA cream in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: efficacy and phamacokinetic profile. Pain 39: 301–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  476. Strand A, Vahlne A, Svennerholm B, Wallin J, Lycke E (1986) Asymptomatic virus shedding in men with genital herpes infection. Scand J Infect Dis 18: 195–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. Straus SE, Rooney JF, Sever JL et al (1985) Herpes simplex virus infection: biology, treatment and prevention. Ann Intern Med 103: 404–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. Straus SE, Ostrove JM, Inchauspe G et al (1988) Varicella-zoster virus infection. Ann Intern Med 108: 221–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. Su IJ, Hsu YS, Chang YC, Wang IW (1995) Herpesvirus-like DNA sequence in Kaposi’s sarcoma from AIDS and non-AIDS patients in Taiwan. Lancet 345: 722–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  480. Sugihara K, Reupke H, Schmidt-Westhausen A, Phle HD, Gelderblom HR, Reichart PA (1990) Negative staining EM for the detection of Epstein-Barr virus in oral hairy leukoplakia. J Oral Pathol Med 19: 367–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  481. Sumida T, Yonaha F, Maeda T et al (1994) Expression of sequences homologous to HTLV-1 tax gene in the labial salivary glands of Japanese patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 37: 545–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  482. Suttmann U, Willers H, Gurdelmann R, Hopken I, Schededl H, Deicher H (1988) Cytomegalovirus infection in HIV-infected individuals. Infection 16: 111–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. Syrjanen KJ (1989) Epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and their associations with genital squamous cell cancer. APMIS 97: 957–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. Syrjanen S (1992) Viral infections in oral mucosa. Scand J Dent Res 100: 17–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  485. Syrjanen S, Laine P, Valle SL (1988) Demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV) DNA in oral hairy leukoplakia using in situ hybridisation with biotinylated probe. Proc Finn Dent Assoc 84: 127–132Google Scholar
  486. Syrjanen S, Laine P, Happonen RP, Niemela M (1989) Oral hairy leukoplakia is not a specific sign of HIV-infection but related to immunosuppression in general. J Oral Pathol Med 18: 28–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  487. Syrjanen S, Karja V, Change F, Johansson B, Syrjanen K (1990) Epstein-Barr virus involvement in salivary gland lesions associated with Sjogren’s syndrome. ORL 52: 254–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  488. Syrjanen S, Scully C. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) and oral health and disease. J Oral Pathol Med (in press)Google Scholar
  489. Syrjanen SM (1990) Basic concepts and practical applications of recombinant DNA techniques in detection of human papillomavirus infections. APMIS 98: 95–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  490. Syrjanen SM, Syrjanen KJ, Lamberg MA (1986) Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in oral mucosal lesions using in situ DNA-hybridization applied on paraffin sections. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 62: 660–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  491. Syrjanen SM, Syrjanen KJ, Happonen RP et al (1987) In situ DNA hybridization analysis of human papillomavirus ( HPV) sequences in benign oral mucosal lesions. Arch Dermatol Res 279: 543–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  492. Syrjanen SM, Syrjanen KJ, Happonen RP (1988) Human papillomavirus ( HPV) DNA sequences in oral precanerous lesions and squamous cell carcinoma demonstrated by in situ hybridization. J Oral Pathol Med 17: 273–278Google Scholar
  493. Szaki T, Miwata H, Matsui Y et al (1990) Varicella zoster virus DNA in throat swabs. Arch Dis Child 65: 333–334Google Scholar
  494. Taieb A, Fontan I, Maleville J (1985) Acyclovir therapy for eczema herpeticum in infants. Arch Dermatol 121: 1380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. Talacko AA, Teo CG, Griffin BE, Johnson NW (1991) Epstein Barr virus receptors but not viral DNA are present in normal and malignant oral epithelium. J Oral Pathol Med 20: 20–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  496. Talal N, Dauphinee MJ, Dang H, Alexander SS, Hart DJ, Garry RF (1990) Detection of serum antibodies to retroviral proteins in patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome (autoimmune exocrinopathy). Arthritis Rheum 33: 774–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  497. Terada K, Katamine S, Eguchi K et al (1994) Prevalence of HTLV-1 in Sjogren’s syndrome. Lancet 344: 1116–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  498. Thom JJ, Oxholm P, Andersen KH (1988) High levels of complement fixing antibodies against cytomegalovirus in patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol 6: 71–74Google Scholar
  499. Thomas JA, Felix DH, Wray D, Southam JC, Cubie HA, Crawford DH (1991) Epstein-Barr virus gene expression and epithelial cell differentiation in oral hairy leukoplakia. Am J Pathol 139: 1369–1380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  500. Toghill PJ, McGaughey M (1972) Cytomegalovirus esophagitis. Br Med J 2: 294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  501. Tovi F, Hadar T, Sidi J et al (1985) The significance of specific IgA antibodies in the serum in the early diagnosis of zoster. J Infect Dis 152: 230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  502. Tseng CJ, Lin CY, Wang RL (1992) Possible transplacental transmission of human papillomavirus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 166: 35–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  503. Tsuchiya H, Tomita Y, Shirasawa H, Tanzawa H, Sato K, Simizu B (1991) Detection of human papillomavirus in head and neck tumors with DNA hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 71: 721–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  504. Tyan Y-S, Liu S-T, Ong W-R, Chen M-L, Shu C-H, Chang Y-S (1993) Detection of Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus in head and neck tumours. J Clin Microbiol 31: 53–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. Ueda K, Kusuhara K, Hirose M, Okada K, Miyazaki C, Tokugawa K, Nakayama M, Yamanishi K (1989) Exanthem subitum and antibody to human herpesvirus-6. J Infect Dis 159: 750–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. Uschendorf PR, Schofer H, Rumme U, Nilbradt R (1988) Therapy of oral hairy leukoplakia with acyclovir. Hautarzt 39: 36–38Google Scholar
  507. Vasudevan DM, Raghunath PN, Shanavas KR, Vijayakumar T, Antony A (1991a) Detection of HSV1 DNA segments in human oral cancer biopsies by dot-blot and in situ DNA hybridisation techniques. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 10: 291–294Google Scholar
  508. Vasudevan DM, Shanavas KR, Kala V, Vijayakumar T, Kumari TV (1991b) Association of herpes group of viruses with oral cancer. In: Varma AK (ed) Oral oncology. Macmillan, New York, pp 113–116Google Scholar
  509. Verano L, Michalski FJ (1990) Herpes simplex virus antigen direct detection in standard virus transport medium by Du Pont Herpchek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 28: 2555–2558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  510. Vestey JP, Norval M (1992) Mucocutaneous infections with herpes simplex virus and their management. Clin Exp Dermatol 17: 221–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  511. Vilde JL, Perronne C, Huchon A et al (1985) Association of Epstein-Barr virus with lethal midline granuloma. N Engl J Med 313: 11–61Google Scholar
  512. Villar LA, Massanari RM, Mitros FA (1984) Cytomegalovirus infection with acute erosive esophagitis. Am J Med 76: 924–928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  513. Walling DM, Raab-Traub N (1994) Epstein-Barr virus intrastrain recombination in oral hairy leukoplakia. J Virol 68: 7909–7917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. Walling DM, Edmiston SN, Sixbey JW, Abdel-Hamid M, Resnick L, Raab-Traub N (1992) Coinfection with multiple strains of the Epstein-Barr virus in human immunodeficiency virus-associated hairy leukoplakia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 6560–6564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  515. Walling DM, Perkins AG, Webster-Cyriaque J, Resnick L, Raab-Traub N (1994) The Epstein-Barr virus EBNA-2 gene in oral hairy leukoplakia: strain variation genetic deletion, and transcriptional expression. J Virol 68: 7918–7926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. Walling DM, Clark M, Markovitz DM, Frank TS, Braun DK, Eisenberg E, Krutchkoff DJ, Felix DH, Raab-Traub N (1995) Epstein-Barr virus coinfection and recombination in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus-associated oral hairy leukoplakia. J Infect Dis 171: 1122–1130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  517. Warnakulasuriya KAAS, Johnson NW (1992) Expression of p53 mutant nuclear phosphoprotein in oral carcinoma and potentially malignant oral lesions. J Oral Pathol Med 21: 404–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  518. Warren WP, Balcarek K, Smith R, Pass RF (1992) Comparison of rapid methods of detection of cytomegalovirus in saliva with virus isolation in tissue culture. J Clin Microbiol 30: 786–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  519. Watts SL, Brewer EE, Fry TL (1991) Human papillomavirus DNA types in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 71: 701–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  520. Werness BA, Levine AJ, Howley PM (1990) Association of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 E6 proteins with p53. Science 248: 76–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  521. Westheim AI, Tenser RB, Marks JG (1987) Acyclovir resistance in a patient with chronic muco-cutaneous herpes simplex infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 17: 785–880Google Scholar
  522. Weston WL, Brice SL, Jester JD, Lane AT, Stockert S, Huff JC (1992) Herpes simplex virus in childhood erythema multiforme. Pediatrics 89: 32–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  523. Whitley RJ, Gnann JW (1992) Acyclovir: a decade later. N Engl J Med 327: 782–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  524. Whitley RJ, Alford CA, Hirsch MS, Schooley RT, Luby JP, Aoki FY, Hanley D, Nahmias AJ, Soong SJ (1986) Vidarabine versus acyclovir therapy in herpes simplex encephalitis. N Engl J Med 314: 144–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  525. Whittingham S, McNeilage J, Mackay IR (1985) Primary Sjogren’s syndrome after infectious mononucleosis. Ann Intern Med 102: 490–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  526. Wildy P (1985) Herpes viruses: a background. Br Med Bull 41: 339–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  527. Wildy P (1986) Herpesvirus. Intervirology 25: 117–140Google Scholar
  528. Wildy P, Gell PGH (1985) The host response to herpes simplex virus. Br Med Bull 41: 86–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  529. Wiley D (1988) MHC gene in cytomegalovirus. Nature 331: 209–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  530. Wilkes M, Fortin AH, Felix JC et al (1988) Value of necropsy in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Lancet 2: 85–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  531. Winston DJ, Pollard RB, Ho WG et al (1982) Cytomegalovirus immune plasma in bone marrow transplant recipients. Ann Intern Med 97: 11–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  532. Wolf BC, Martin AW, Neiman RS et al (1990) The detection of Epstein-Barr virus in hairy cell leukemia cells by in situ hybridization. Am J Pathol 136: 717–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  533. Wolf H, Bogedain C, Schwarzmann F (1993) Epstein-Barr virus and its interaction with the host. Intervirology 35: 26–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  534. Wood MJ (1991) Herpes zoster and pain. Scand J Infect [Suppl] 78: 53–61Google Scholar
  535. Woods KV, Shillitoe EJ, Spitz MR, Schantz SP, Adler-Storthz K (1993) Analysis of human papillomavirus DNA in oral squamous cell carcinomas. J Oral Pathol Med 22: 101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  536. Woodworth CD, Doniger J, DiPaolo JA (1989) Immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes by various human papillomavirus DNAs corresponds to their association with cervical carcinoma. J Virol 63: 159–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  537. WuDunn D, Spear P (1989) Initial interaction of herpes simplex virus with cells is binding to heparan sulfate. J Virol 63: 52–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  538. Wyatt LS, Rodriguez WJ, Balachandran N, Frenkel N (1991) Human herpesvirus 7: antigenic properties and prevalence in children and adults. J Virol 65: 6260–6265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  539. Yamanishi K, Okuno T, Shiraki K, Takashashi M, Kondo T, Asano Y, Kurata T (1988) Identification of human herpesvirus-6 as a causal agent for exanthem subitum. Lancet 1: 1065–1067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  540. Yao QY, Ogan P, Rowe M, Wood M, Rickinson AB (1989) Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells persist in the circulation of acyclovir-treated virus carriers. Int J Cancer 43: 67–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  541. Yao QY, Rowe M, Young LS, Rickinson AB (1991) The Epstein-Barr virus: dominance of a single growth transforming isolate in the blood and in the oropharynx of healthy virus carriers. J Gen Virol 72: 1579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  542. Yeudall WA (1992) Human papillomaviruses and oral neoplasia. Oral Oncol Eur J Cancer 28B: 61–66Google Scholar
  543. Yeudall WA, Campo MS (1991) Human papillomavirus DNA in biopsies of oral tissues. J Gen Virol 72: 173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  544. Yin XY, Donovan-Peluso M, Whiteside TL et al (1991) Gene amplification and gene dosage in cell lines derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 3: 443–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  545. Yoshikawa T, Suga S, Asano Y (1991) Human herpesvirus infection in bone marrow transplant. Blood 78: 1381–1384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  546. Youle PW, Hawkins DA, Collins P et al (1988) Acyclovir-resistant herpes in AIDS treated with foscarnet. Lancet 2: 341–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  547. Young LS, Dawson CW, Clark D et al (1988) Epstein-Barr virus gene expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Gen Virol 69: 1051–1065PubMedGoogle Scholar
  548. Young LS, Alfieri C, Hennessy K et al (1989a) Expression of Epstein-Barr virus transformation-associated genes in tissues of patients with EBV lymphoproliferative disease. N Engl J Med 321: 1080–1085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  549. Young LS, Bevan LS, Johnson MA, Blomfield PI, Bromidge T, Maitland NJ (1989b) The polymerase chain reaction: a new epidemiological tool for investigating cervical human papillomavirus infection. Br Med J 298: 14–18Google Scholar
  550. Young LS, Lau R, Rowe M et al (1991) Differentiation associated expression of the Epstein Barr nmvirus BZLF1 transactivator protein in oral hairy leukoplakia. J Virol 65: 28–68Google Scholar
  551. Young SK, Min KW (1991) In situ DNA hybridization analysis of oral papillomas, leukoplakias, and carcinomas for human papillomavirus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 71: 726–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  552. Zeuss MS, Miller CS, Whilte DK (1991) In situ hybridization analysis of human papillomavirus DNA in oral mucosal lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 71: 714–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. Zhang X, Langford A, Becker J, Rabamus JP, Pohle HD, Reichart P, Gelderblom H (1988) Ultra-structural and immunohistochemical findings in oral hairy leukoplakia. Virchows Arch Al 412: 533–542Google Scholar
  554. Ziegler JL, Beckstead JA, Volberding PA et al (1984) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in 90 homosexual men. Relation to generalised lymphadenopathy and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 311: 565–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  555. Zimmerman SJ, Moses E, Sofat N et al (1991) Evaluation of a virual, rapid, membrane enzyme immunosassay for the detection of herpes simplex virus antigen. J Clin Microbiol 29: 842–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  556. Zur Hausen H, de Villiers EM (1994) Human papillomaviruses. Annu Rev Microbiol 48: 427–447Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Scully

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations