Pseudotumor cerebri: Symptoms, associations, etiological considerations and therapy

  • Th. F. Münte
  • E. M. Jöbges
  • S. Johannes
Conference paper


Before the advent of sophisticated neuroimaging techniques neurologists have been puzzled by patients with apparent symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure suggesting a space occupying lesion, who did not take the predicted fatal course (Quincke 1897). Various labels such as idiopathic (benign) intracranial hypertension, pseudotumor cerebri have been applied to this condition. In this short review we will use the term pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) and will consider the definition, clinical picture, complications, etiological theories and therapeutic measures as discussed in the recent literature.


Iron Deficiency Anemia Intracranial Hypertension Cryptococcal Meningitis Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Arachnoid Villus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahlskog JE, O’Neill BP (1982) Pseudotumor cerebri. Arch Intern Med 97:249–256Google Scholar
  2. Askmark H, Lundberg PO, Olsson S (1989) Drug-related headache. Headache 29:441–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Corbett JJ, Thompson HS (1989) The rational management of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Arch Neurol 46:1049–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Custer P, Breen LA, Burde RM (1982) Cryptococcal meningitis: Atypical presentation. J Clin Neurol Ophthalmol 2:33–37Google Scholar
  5. Diaz-Espejo CE, Villalobos Chaves F, Sureda-Ramis B (1987) Chronic intracranial hypertension secondary to neurobrucellosis. J Neurol 234:59–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Durcan FJ, Corbett JJ, Wall M (1988) The incidence of psueotumor cerebri: population studies in Iowa and Louisiana. Arch Neurol 45:875–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Giuseffi V, Wall M, Siegel PZ, Rojas PB (1991) Symptoms and disease associations in idiopathic intracrnial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri): A case-control study. Neurology 41:239–244Google Scholar
  8. Gjerris F, Sorensen PS, Vorstrup S, Paulson OB (1985) Intracranial pressure, conductance to cerebrospinal fluid outflow, and cerebral blood flow in patients with benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Ann Neurol 17:158–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guy J, Johnston PK, Corbett JJ, Day AL, Glaser JS (1990) Treatment of visual loss in pseudotumor cerebri associated with uremia. Neurology 40:28–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hayreh MS, Hayreh SS (1977) Optic disc edema n raised intracranial pressure: I. Evolution and resolution. Arch Ophthalmol 95:1237–1244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Johnston I, Hawke S, Halmagyi M, Teo C (1991) The pseudotumor syndrome. Arch Neurol 48:740–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Joynt RJ (1958) The mechanisms of production of papilledema in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Neurology 8:8–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaell AT, Shetty M, Lee BC, Lockshin MD (1986) The diversity of neurologic events in systemic lupus erthematosus: prospective clinical and computed tomography classification of 82 events in 71 patients. Arch Neurol 43:273–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kelman SE, Heaps R, Wolf A, Elman MJ (1992) Optic nerve decompression surgery improves visual function in patients with pseudotumor cerebri. Neurosurgery 30:391–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu GT, Glaser JS, Schatz NJ (1994) High-dose methylprednisolone and aeetazolamide for visual loss in pseudotumor cerebri. Am J Ophthalmol 118:88–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lyons MK, Meyer FB (1990) Cerebrospinal fluid physiology and the management of intracranial pressure. Mayo Clin Proc 65:684–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Morooka T, Hirata M, Fukuya H, Yasumoto S, Ohfu M, Ogata H, Mitsudome A, Oda T (1994) Pseudotumor cerebri associated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection. Acta Paediatr 83:456–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Newborg B (1974) Pseudotumor cerebri treated by rice/reduction diet. Arch Intern Med 133:802–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Quincke H (1897) Über Meningitis Serosa und verwandte Zustände. Dtch Z Nervenheilk 9:149–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Radakrishnan K, Sridharan R, Ashok PP, Mousa ME (1986) Pseudotumor cerebri: incidence and pattern in North-Eastern Libya. Eur Neurol 25:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Radhakrishnan K, Ahlskog E, Garrity JAA, Kurland LT (1994) Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Mayo Clin Proc 69:169–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Raichle ME, Grubb RL, Phelps ME, Gado MH, Caronna JJ (1978) Cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in pseudotumor cerebri. Ann Neurol 4:104–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Smith JL (1985) Whence pseudotumor cerebri. J clin Neuroopthalmol 5:55–56Google Scholar
  24. Stoebner R, Kiser R, Alperin IB (1970) Iron deficiency anemia and papilledema. Dif Dis 15:919–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tugal O, Jacobson R, Berezin S, Foreman S, Berezin S, Brudnicki A, Godine L, Davidian MM, Jayabose S, Escobedo V (1994) Recurrent benign intracranial hypertension due to iron deficiency anemia. Case report and review of the literature. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 16:266–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wall M, George D (1991) Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a prospective study in 50 patients. Brain 114:155–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wysowski DK, Green L (1995) Serious adverse events in Norplant users reported to the Food and Drug Administration’s Med Watch spontaneous reporting system. Pbstet Gynecol 85:538–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Th. F. Münte
    • 1
  • E. M. Jöbges
    • 1
  • S. Johannes
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. NeurologyMedical School HannoverGermany

Personalised recommendations