STM Imaging of Single-Atom Adsorbates on Metals

  • N. D. Lang
Part of the Springer Series in Surface Sciences book series (SSSUR, volume 29)


Consider the imaging of a single atom adsorbed on a metal surface in the STM. Ideally, the STM tip will also be one atom adsorbed on a group of other metal atoms. For theoretical purposes, we will model this system using two flat metallic electrodes, each of which has a single atom adsorbed on its surface, with one representing the tip and the other the sample. If we calculate the current that flows between these electrodes when a bias voltage is applied between them, then we can study theoretically many of the basic physical aspects of STM imaging.


Fermi Level State Density Lateral Separation Jellium Model Left Electrode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 2.1
    For a discussion of the jellium model, see e.g. N.D. Lang: Density functional approach to the electronic structure of metal surfaces and metal-adsorbate systems, in Theory of the In-homogeneous Electron Gas, ed. by S. Lundqvist, N.H. March (Plenum, New York, 1983), pp. 309–389, or N.D. Lang: The density-functional formalism and the electronic structure of metal surfaces, in Solid State Physics, 28, 225–300 (Academic, New York, 1973). The calculations shown in this article are all for a positive background density such that r s = 2 bohr, where (4/3)πrs3n̄ ̄ 1. This corresponds to a typical high-electron-density metal.Google Scholar
  2. 2.2
    J. Bardeen: Phys. Rev. Lett. 6, 57 (1961)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 2.3
    J. Tersoff, D.R. Hamann: Phys. Rev. B 31, 805 (1985); Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1998 (1983)Google Scholar
  4. 2.4
    Discussions for tip wave functions of higher I values were given in [2.3] and by M.S. Chung, T.E. Feuchtwang, P.H. Cutler: Surf. Sci. 187, 559 (1987); C.J. Chen: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 319 (1988); and W. Sacks, C. Noguera: Phys. Rev. B 43, 11612 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 2.5
    N.D. Lang: Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 45 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 2.6
    N.D. Lang: Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 230 and 2925 (E) (1985)Google Scholar
  7. 2.7
    N.D. Lang: IBM J. Res. Dev. 30, 374 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 2.8
    N.D. Lang: Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1164 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 2.9
    N.D. Lang: Comments Cond. Mat. Phys. 14, 253 (1989)Google Scholar
  10. 2.10
    E. Kopatzki, R.J. Behm: Surf. Sci. 245, 255 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 2.11
    D.M. Eigler, P.S. Weiss, E.K. Schweizer, N.D. Lang: Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1189 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 2.12
    N.D. Lang: Phys. Rev. B 34, 5947 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 2.13
    J.A. Stroscio, R.M. Feenstra, A.P. Fein: Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2579 (1986); but regarding the role of tip electronic structure in spectroscopy, see by contrast R.M. Tromp, E.J. van Loenen, J.E. Demuth, N.D. Lang: Phys. Rev. B 37, 9042 (1988), where an important tip contribution was observed.Google Scholar
  14. 2.14
    L. Esaki, P.J. Stiles: Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1108 (1966)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 2.15
    P. Bedrossian, D.M. Chen, K. Mortensen, J.A. Golovchenko: Nature 342, 258 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 2.16
    I.-W. Lyo, Ph. Avouris: Science 245, 1369 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 2.17
    Y. Kuk, P.J. Silverman: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 289 (1990). Regarding the role of d states, see also discussion in J.E. Demuth, U. Koehler, R.J. Hamers: J. Microscopy 152, 299 (1988).Google Scholar
  18. 2.18
    N.D. Lang: Phys. Rev. B 36, 8173 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 2.19
    J.K. Gimzewski, R. Möller: Phys. Rev. B 36, 1284 (1987); and data of Gimzewski and Möller reproduced in [2.18]Google Scholar
  20. 2.20
    Y. Imry: Physics of mesoscopic systems, in Directions in Condensed Matter Physics: Memorial Volume in Honor of Shang-keng Ma, ed. by G. Grinstein, G. Mazenko (World Scientific, Singapore, 1986), pp. 101–163; R. Landauer: Z. Phys. B 68, 217 (1987)Google Scholar
  21. 2.21
    N.D. Lang: Phys. Rev. B 37, 10395 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 2.22
    G. Binnig, H. Rohrer: Surf. Sci. 126, 236 (1983); R. Wiesendanger, L. Eng, H.R. Hidber, P. Oelhafen, L. Rosenthaler, U. Staufer, H.-J. Guntherodt: Surf. Sci. 189/190, 24 (1987); B. Marchon, P. Bernhardt, M. E. Bussell, G.A. Somorjai, M. Salmeron, W. Siekhaus: Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1166 (1988)Google Scholar
  23. 2.23
    Another instance of this occurs in the theory of point electron sources: N.D. Lang, A. Yacoby, Y. Imry: Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1499 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. D. Lang

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations